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the nucleus of an atom consists of

protons and neutrons

the force that holds the nucleus together is the

strong force

x-rays are similar to

gamma rays

electrical forces within an atomic nucleus tend to

push it apart

generally speaking, the larger a nucleus is, the more it is

unstable

which of the following is Not emitted in radioactive decay

alpha particles, electrons, high-energy electromagnetic radiation, beta rays

when alpha and beta rays pass through a magnetic field, their paths change

in opposite directions

an alpha particle consists of

two protons and two neutrons

the type of radiation that will penetrate farthest into a material is

a gamma ray

the reason alpha rays are easy to stop is that they

are relatively big, are doubly charged, slow down easily

which radiation has no electric charge associated with it

gamma rays

two common products of unbound neutron decay are

a proton and an electron

which experiences the least electrical force in an electric field

a gamma ray

which experiences the greatest electrical force in an electric field

an alpha particle

an atom is called an ion if there

is an even number of protons and electrons

the atomic number of an atom or ion refers to the number of

protons

the atomic mass number of an atom refers to the number of

nucleons

deuterium

is an isotope of hydrogen, is stable, consists of one proton and one neutron, can become part of a molecule called heavy water

large nuclei like uranium are radioactive because

there are too many isolated neutrons

the time needed for half of a radioactive sample to decay is called its

half-life

the half-life of a certain isotope is 1 day. at the end of 2 days how much of the isotope remains

one quarter

the half-life of most radioactive isotpes is about

half lives range from very short to very long

artificially induced radioactive elements generally have relatively

short half lives

carbon-14, an isotpe of carbon, is formed mostly in

the earth's atmosphere

carbon-14 is radioactive and decays into

nitrogern- 14

the reason carbon dating works is that

after a plant or animal dies, it stops taking in fresh carbon-14

the radioactive tracers can be used to help

farmers use the proper amount of fertilizer, doctors trace food as it moves through the body, engineers how parts of a car withstand age, and public utility workers trace leaks in buried pipes

carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphere primarily by

cosmic ray bombardment

carbon dating requires that the object being tested contain

organic material

most radiation in the air comes from

cosmic ray and earth minerals

a sample of radioactive materials is

somewhat warmer than its surroundings

when a nucleus emits a beta particle, its atomic number

changes but its mass number remains constant

when uranium (92 protons) ejects an alpha particle, the nucleus left behind has

90 protons

when thorium (90 protons) ejects a beta particle, the resulting nucleus has

none of the above

all elements beyond uranium in the periodic table

have no isotopes

when a nucleus emits a positron, its atomic number

decreases by 1

an element will decay to another element with higher atomic number in the periodic table if it emits

a beta particle

in order for an atom to decay to an element that is one greater in atomic number, it can emit

1 alpha particle and 3 beta particles, 1 positron and 2 beta particles, 1 beta particle

an element emits 1 alpha particle and 3 beta particles. its atomic number

increases by 1

you should limit the amount of extra radiation to which you are exposed, because

radiation is harmful to the body, the body can only handle certain amount of radiation in one lifetime, radiation disrupts the body's intricately structured cell system

an experimenter finds that 50% of a sample of uranium-238 has decayed. since uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.5 billion years, the sample's age is about

4.5 billion years

a sample of a certain radioactive material has a half-life of 1 year. how much of this radioactive material will be left at the end of 3 years

one eighth

the half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years. suppose a basket was found that contains one half as much carbon-14 as a new basket of the same material. what is the approximate age of the basket

5730 years

the half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years. if a 1 gram sample of old carbon is 1\8 as radioactive as 1 gram of a current sample, then the age of the old sample is

17190 years

a certain radioactive isotope placed near a geiger counter registers 160 counts per second. eight hours later, the counter registers 10 counts per second. what is the half-life of the isotope

8 hours

a certain radioactive isotope placed near a geiger counter registers 120 counts per minute. if the half-life of the isotope is 1 day, what will the count rate ve at the end of 4 days

7.5 counts/min

the nucleus of an atom consists of small particles called nucleons

true

the mas of an atom is distributed equally among the protons, neutrons, and electrons

false

nucleons are bound to each other by an attractive force called the nucleon force

false

neutrons are stable particles and can last for millions of years by themselves without spontaneously decaying

false

alpha rays are charged positively

true

it is impossible for a hydrogen atom to emit an alpha particle

true

of the three major kinds of radioactivity, gamma rays can penetrate the farthest into a material

true

an ionized atom has the same number of protons a electrons

false

all elements except hydrogen have isotopes

false

the atomic number of an element is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that elelment

true

all isotopes are radioactive

false

the half-life of an isotope is the time needed for half its mass to change to energy

false

the changing of one element into another is called transmutation

true

uranium is the heaviest naturally occurring element normally found in the earth's crust

true

archeologist use a technique called carbon dating to establish dates of bones and wooden artifacts

true

everyday plants take in some radioactive carbon-14 through carbon dioxide

true

uranium dating is another way to date materials, but it is limited to rocks that have been formed only recently in the history of the earth

false

two round-trip flights between New York and San Francisco normally expose you to as much radiation as a single chest X-ray

true

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