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Is bacteria a prokaryote or eukaryote?

Prokaryote

Most bacteria are killed

above maximum growth temp.

Methane is the end product of

fermentation***

Carbon dioxide is the end product of

aerobic respiration

Lactic acid is the end product of

Fermentation, Pyruvic Acid Cycle

Alcohol is produced by

Ethynole and isopropenol
yeast fermentation

The optimal growth Centigrade temp for bacteria that live in humans is

39 degrees C

During the plateau phase of the bacteria growth graph (Stationary Phase)...

Growth rate equals the death rate

A facultative anaerobe...

prefers oxygen

An obligate anaerobe...

harmed by toxic forms of oxygen
no neutralizer enzymes

What does sterilization do?

It removes all microbial life

A bacteriostatic agent kills...

Nothing

Commercial food sterilization kills...

C. botulinum endospores

A sanitizing agent kills enough bacteria and viruses on objects to...

Safe levels

Pasteurization

-Heating reduces spoilage organisms and pathogens
-High heat for a short time-later used for milk

Refrigeration only...

Inhibits microbial growth

Silver is an example of

A heavy metal (chemical disinfectant)

Silver-sulfadiazine is used for

Burn and wound dressings

Zinc chloride is a

Mouthwash and "Zicam" lozenges

Ethylene oxide is a

Gaseous sterilant
-highly penetrating
-kills all microbes and endospores

Hot-air sterilization is

Oven
-hot air 170degrees C for 2hrs
-less efficient than moist heat for sterilizing objects

Boiling kills most microbes in

Ten minutes

Isopropanol is not

Effective against endospores or non-enveloped viruses

Sodium hypochlorite is

A chlorine disinfectant
-Clorox/Bleach

The effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment is dependent on

-Number of microbes
-Environment--organic matter, temp, biofilms
-Time of exposure
-Microbial characteristics

In eukaryotes, the Kreb's cycle occurs in the

Matrix of the mitochondria

In prokaryotes, the Kreb's cycle occurs in the

Cytoplasm

The first step in identifying bacteria is

whether it is gram negative or positive

Clostridium botulinum causes a form of

botulism--repiratory paralysis

Clostridium tetani causes a form of

tetanus/lockjaw--paralysis

Clostridium difficile causes

serious diarrhea after normal flora

Staphylococcus has a pigment that is

yellow

Algae is

a eukaryote

Toxoplasmosis gondii is associated with

-toxoplasmosis
-cats and rats
-congenital infections of fetus
-human contact with oocytes in feces

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is associated with

-Tsetse fly
-Sleeping sickness--fever, headaches, coma, death
-Protozoa

Rheumatic fever is caused by untreated

Streptococcus pyogenes "Strep Throat" Pharyngitis

Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes a gray membrane

of fibrin and dead tissue

The diagnosis of otitis media is made by

Broad spectrum antibiotics

Symptoms of the common cold include

-Sneezing
-Nasal secretions
-Congestion

The normal duration of the common cold is

about one week

The following IS NOT a clinical symptom of influenza

NO intestinal symptoms

Tuberculosis is contracted by the inhalation of

coughed droplets

Meningitis is the infection of the

meninges

Encephalitis is the infection of

brain tissue

Botulism grows in

vegetables

The best way to prevent spread of the common cold is to

wash hands

Tetanus grows in

deep wounds and punctures

Prions are

-Infectious pieces of protein

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by

Prions

Gentamycin is

-a soil fungus
-1947
-Micromonospora purpurae
-renal, otic toxicity risk/benefit in pseudomonas

Chloramphenicol is

-one of the most original anitbiotics
-1940's
-Streptomyces spp bacteria
-high risk of aplastic anemia
-benefit only for salmonella typhoid fever and N. meningitis

Erythromycin is used against

soil bacteria--streptococcus erythraea

A narrow spectrum antibiotic

active against a few bacteria species

A broad spectrum antibiotic

active against many species

DNA fingerprinting compares

one known to another unknown

Electrophoresis is a process that moves protein fragments

-separates the DNA fragments
-creates "fingerprint" pattern that is compared and matched

In the upper respiratory tract, pathogens are

-Normal flora --potentially pathogenic
-Inhaled/contagious

In the lower respiratory tract, pathogens are

-no normal flora/ usually sterile

Whooping cough is a

gram negative coccobacillus

Haemophilus influenza commonly causes a form of

Epiglottitis

Legionella pneumophila causes

Legionnaire's disease

MRSA stands for

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

yersinia pestis causes

plague

Enterotoxigenic E Coli is the

toxin, not invasive

Enterohemorrhagic E Coli is the

Toxin, invasive

Francisella tularensis is associated with

tularemia- rodents to lymph nodes

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is associated with

coastal shellfish

Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes a form of

gastroenteritis

Yersinia pestis is associated with

fleas

Most E coli strains are

harmless

Bacillus anthracis is associated with

-anthrax
-sheep and cattle

Pseudomonas aeroginosa has a

blue-green puss

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