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multiple choice

b

Which of the following possess an incomplete digestive system?
a. annelids
b. flatworms
c. mollusks
d. arthropods
e. echinoderms

a

The process that moves nutrients into the blood or lymph is
a. absorption
b. assimilation
c. digestion
d. ingestion
e. all of the choices

b

The process that releases digestive enzymes is
a. mobility
b. secretion
c. digestion
d. absorption
e. elimination

b

The muscular digestive organ of birds in which food is ground into small bits is the
a. lumen
b. gizzard
c. crop
d. stomach
e. cloaca

b

Earthworms and birds have a crop that is modified for
a. digestion of cellulose
b. food storage
c. mechanical breakdown of food
d. digestion of fats
e. storage and elimination of undigested food

c

Ruminants need special enzymes to digest
a. starch
b. proteins
c. cellulose
d. lignin
e. lipids

c

Which of the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?
a. stomach
b. liver
c. colon
d. pancreas
e. salivary gland

e

Which of the following stores feces immediately prior to elimination?
a. small intestine
b. liver
c. appendix
d. gall bladder
e. rectum

b

Which of the following is NOT an active participant in the digestive process?
a. small intestine
b. esophagus
c. pancreas
d. mouth
e. liver

b

During the process of swallowing, the
a. esophagus is temporarily closed by the glottis
b. epiglottis closes the trachea leading to the lungs
c. pharynx restricts food entry to the esophagus
d. epiglottis seals the esophagus
e. none of the choices

e

Sphincters
a. are circular muscles
b. prevent backflow
c. are smooth muscles
d. are found at the beginning and end of the stomach
e. all of the choices

b

Of the following the greatest amount of nutrient absorption takes place in the
a. stomach
b. small intestine
c. colon
d. pancreas
e. esophagus

d

Movement of fatty acids and monoglycerides through the membranes of the small intestine is primarily by
a. osmosis
b. bulk flow
c. active transport
d. diffusion
e. all of the choices

c

Movement of glucose through the membranes of the small intestine is primarily by
a. osmosis
b. bulk flow
c. transport proteins
d. diffusion through the lipid bilayer
e. all of the choices

c

Which of the following are tiny projections of the mucosal wall?
a. microvilli
b. mucins
c. villi
d. submucosa
e. jejunum

d

Which of the following layer(s) lies next to the lumen of the intestinal tract?
a. longitudinal muscles
b. circular muscle layer
c. submucosa
d. mucosa
e. serosa

d

Brush border cells are important to
a. absorption
b. secretion
c. movement of chyme
d. both absorption and secretion
e. all of the choices

c

The digestion of fats mostly occurs in the
a. stomach
b. pancreas
c. small intestine
d. lymph vascular system
e. liver

a

What is the structure located at the junction of the small and large intestines?
a. cecum
b. rectum
c. anus
d. villus
e. pharynx

e

The primary function of the large intestine is
a. storage of feces
b. retention of water
c. manufacture of vitamins
d. digestion of fats
e. absorption of water

a

Materials move most slowly through the
a. colon
b. duodenum
c. esophagus
d. jejunum
e. stomach

c

The organ that stores and detoxifies different organic compounds is the
a. pancreas
b. small intestine
c. liver
d. spleen
e. gall bladder

d

The liver is associated with all of the following functions EXCEPT
a. formation of urea
b. formation of bile
c. detoxification of poisons
d. secretion of digestive enzymes
e. carbohydrate metabolism

c

During, or shortly after a meal, most cells use which of the following as a source of energy?
a. fat
b. amino acids
c. glucose
d. glycogen
e. any of these, depending on the concentration of the particular organic compound

a

Which human organ uses most of the circulating glucose?
a. brain
b. heart
c. liver
d. pancreas
e. skeletal muscle

b

The ideal diet consists of all of the following EXCEPT
a. bulk
b. few complex carbohydrates
c. little salt and sugar
d. little red meat
e. fruits and vegetables

b

According to the USDA recommended food guidelines, which of the following should be present in the human diet in the highest percentage?
a. protein
b. carbohydrate
c. lipid
d. vitamins
e. minerals

a

Lipids can serve in all but which of the following capacities?
a. enzymes
b. energy
c. membrane structure
d. insulation
e. cushioning

c

Of the 20 amino acids, how many are considered to be essential in that the human body cannot synthesize them?
a. 2
b. 5
c. 8
d. 10
e. 12

a

What sugar can interfere with insulin action?
a. fructose
b. galactose
c. glucose
d. lactose
e. sucrose

d

A "low-carb" diet can cause the kidneys to be overworked as they eliminate excess
a. ketones
b. urea
c. water
d. ketones and urea
e. urea and water

b

A deficiency of vitamin C may give rise to
a. beriberi
b. scurvy
c. pellagra
d. hypothyroidism
e. all of the choices

b

Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning mineral metabolism?
a. Sodium and potassium are needed for maintaining osmotic balances.
b. Zinc is important in building strong bones and teeth.
c. Calcium is needed for muscle and nerve functioning.
d. Iron is needed for building cytochromes and heme groups.
e. None of the choices.

b

Lack of which element can lead to thyroid problems?
a. iron
b. iodine
c. calcium
d. zinc
e. magnesium

c

The element needed for blood clotting, nerve transmission, and bone and tooth formation is
a. iron
b. iodine
c. calcium
d. zinc
e. magnesium

a

The constituent of hemoglobin whose absence leads to anemia is
a. iron
b. iodine
c. calcium
d. zinc
e. magnesium

d

The BMI cut off of ____ and above indicates obesity.
a. 15
b. 20
c. 25
d. 30
e. 40

e

Which appetite suppressing hormone is missing in obese mice?
a. cholecystokinin
b. gastrin
c. ghrelin
d. insulin
e. leptin

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