. ______is an enzyme that forms new DNA by linking together a string of deoxyribonucleotides,
using single-stranded DNA as a template
______is a method for separating a mixture of molecules (in a gel matrix placed in an electric
field) according to their electric charge, size, and shape
______is a tiny, circular molecule of nonchromosomal DNA found in bacteria and used as a
vector for transferring genes from one cell to another.
_______is a retrovirus polymerase enzyme for "backward" transcription, that is, making DNA
from an RNA template
________is an enzyme that forms RNA by linking together a string of ribonucleotides in a
sequence complementary to that of a single-stranded DNA template.
________is a technique of molecular biology in which pieces of single-stranded separated DNA segments are transferred from a gel to a nitrocellulose filter and then treated with a radioactive
probe to identify the DNA segment of interest
_________is a technique of molecular biology in which total mRNA from cells are separated
on a gel and are transferred from the gel to a nitrocellulose filter and then treated with a radioactive probe to identify the mRNA of interest.
________is a method for amplifying DNA segments
C. Dolly was cloned from an adult __________
A cloned library of an entire genome contains all the genes of an _________
vitamin A deficiency
"Golden" rice are transgenic crops that have been genetically engineered to produce elevated
levels of beta-carotene in order to help prevent______
Short Tandem Repeats
used for DNA fingerprinting, repeated sequences present in the human genome, and highly variable in copy number
single nucleotide polymorphism
Which technique would most likely be used to screen human populations in an effort to determine
if there is a correlation between a gene with a specific mutation and a human disease?
expressed sequence tags
Which technique would most likely be used to screen the Computer DNA Data Base for
discovery of genes that code for cell membrane proteins (signaling proteins)?
Which technique would most likely be used to screen total message RNA (mRNA) from
normal cells versus cancer cells in an effort to identify genes associated with cancer?
less than _% of DNA encodes genetic information
A comparison of expressed genes and proteins show that there are more proteins than _____
Which technique(s) would most likely be used for prenatal testing and diagnosis of sickle cell anemia gene?
initiation, promotion, progression, metastasis
Chemical carcinogens, such as the multitude of carcinogens in cigarettes, can cause cancer
by a pathway designated as:
_____are clonal in origin, exhibit chromosomal abnormalities, exhibit unlimited cell proliferation, and accumulate multiple mutations
Hereditary cancers account for _______% of all cancers
tumor suppressor gene
Hereditary retinoblastoma results from deletion of _________
noncancerous growths that do not spread to other tissues
________ refers to the process in which tumor cells detach and move to secondary sites
A ________ is a gene that normally functions to promote cell division and survival
The cancer with the highest incidence in women is ________
The cancer with the highest death rate in women is ________
benzo(A)pyrene (and metabolites) from tobacco
The most potent carcinogen known to humans is __________
Immune response system
The _________________ provides defense against pathogens, exhibits specificity, and can distinguish between self and nonself
Which class of antibody (immunoglobulin, Ig) causes allergic reactions?
_______ have two flexible Fab regions with both regions having specificity to the same antigenic site and have a single Fc region which can be involved in secondary immune responses
B and T lymphoid cells originate in __________, migrate to thymus and bursa-like tissues where they differentiate into functional cells
Which class of antibody (immunoglobulin) can cross the placenta?
cytotoxic T cells
The cell type that has the role in recognizing and destroying altered self is _________
A person of blood type B could receive whole blood from a person with blood type ______
A person of blood type AB could receive red blood cells from persons with blood type ____
A person of blood type AB could receive plasma from persons with blood type ____
A person with blood type O could give red blood cells to persons with blood type ___
A person with blood type AB could give plasma to persons with blood type ____
Which immunoglobulin (antibody) is found in body secretions such as saliva and milk?
Female = Rh-/- Male = Rh+/+
Which marriage can be described as "Rh incompatible"?
Blood type AB
A child is blood type 0. The mother is blood type O. Blood types of four males are listed below. In a question of paternity, which blood type will definitively rule out one male as being the father of this child?
If an activated B cell does not get help from T helper cells, the antibody class secreted will be ____
Approximately ____% of cancers (breast cancer as an example but also true for other cancers) are inherited as germ line genes, that is, mutation of a single gene results in breast cancer.
Desensitization to an allergen involves injection of the allergen beneath the skin of the allergic individual to induce production of which of the following immunoglobulins?
The highest mortality (death) from cancer in U. S. males is ______
The greatest risk factor for developing cancer (using breast cancer as an example, but true for most other cancers) is _____
Which technique would be best to use in forensics?
Cancer cells that leave a primary tumor site and form tumors at distant sites are called _____
tumor suppressor gene
The Retinoblastoma gene (Rb) is an example of a
Women who inherit mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes are at high risk for developing _________
A _________ is a gene that normally functions to promote cell growth/cell proliferation/cell survival
Helper-T cells, memory T cells, and suppressor T cells belong to the ______ immune branch
Which autoimmune disease/disorder is associated with destruction of the myelin sheath?
An attenuated vaccine is composed of living, weakened ____________
A key discovery that made the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) possible is heat stable _________
"Golden rice" is an example of a genetically modified food. Golden rice is generated by becoming modified so endosperm express genes controlling enzymes that convert precursors into ________
A method for analyses of DNA fragments by electrophoresis using a gel matrix is called: __________
If one could choose a single technique to determine paternity of a child? Which technique would be the most revealing?
Which autoimmune disease is associated with immune complex accumulation in the kidneys?
you can clone mRNA using PCR by converting mRNA to ____ using reverse transcriptase then conduct PCR reaction
The class of immunoglobulin (antibody) involved in Rh incompatibility is ___
A method for identifying individuals by using the unique electrophoretic banding patterns generated by DNA probes for highly polymorphic repeated DNA sequences is called
making human proteins in animals making human proteins in plants making human vaccines in plants making human insulin in cow milk are examples of ____
How would the cell cycle be affected if the Rb protein was permanently phosphorylated? The cell cycle would never be ____
__________ recognize specific nucleotide sequences in DNA cut both strands of DNA often produce single-stranded tails
An immune reaction to self is called _______
Golden rice would benefit individuals who have a deficiency in ____ that is associated with impaired immune response system and night blindness
DNA microarray (DNA chip)
Which technique would be best to compare global gene expression in normal versus cancer cells?
To obtain adequate DNA, a human gene ligated into a plasmid is typically amplified using ______
tumor-suppressor genes are the _____ while oncogenes are the ___
A type of life-threatening immediate hypersensitivity reaction that inhibits breathing is called ________
An individual of blood type AB could receive whole blood from the following individuals
T helper cells
HIV virus is responsible for AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The HIV virus infects and destroys ____
___ mutation leading to loss of function causing the cell to divide constantly because of the loss of cell cycle repression
The antibody that expresses enhanced levels after multiple immunizations with a foreign substance such as polio virus is called: ___
Way(s) in which tumor cells evade elimination by cytotoxic T cells (Tc) is/are: down regulation of ___ class 1 and down regulation of __
self altered self
For cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer cells, they must recognize __ and ______
Cloning in cattle is done by dividing a __-cell embryo into __ separate cells, each allowed to form 16-cell embryosand then implanted into surrogate mothers.
An example of a cell cycle check point gene that is mutated in approximately 60% of cancers is:
Clones in a ______library are identified by hybridizing them with a fluorescent labeled probe
source of about 80% of all cancers - cells living on the surface of the body that divide more or less continuously throughout their lives
A cellular molecular pathway by which an external signal is converted into a functional response, produce changes in gene expression, leading to cell division
ras proto-oncogene family
group of related genes that encodes signal-transduction proteins. Mutations at amino acid 12 or 61 cause the formation of an oncoprotein that permanently signals for cell division
An autosomal dominant trait associated with genomic instability of microsatellite DNA sequences and a form of colon cancer (failures in DNA repair)
cancer involving uncontrolled division of white blood cells
An abnormal chromosome produced by translocation of parts of the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22
Cancer genome atlas
an international effort to use new technology to catalog and understand the genetic changes associated with cancer and to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer
viral infections lead to __% of all cancers