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multiple choice questions

c

At the end of gastrulation, which of the following are produced?
a. hollow balls of cells
b. embryos with germ layers
c. solid balls of cells
d. maternal messages
e. all of the choices

d

Which stage in development occurs first?
a. cleavage
b. morula
c. gastrula
d. zygote
e. blastula

c

The germ layers are formed in which of the following stages?
a. cleavage
b. morula
c. gastrula
d. zygote
e. blastula

b

The heart, muscles, bones, and blood develop primarily from
a. ectoderm
b. mesoderm
c. endoderm
d. the placenta
e. the gray crescent

b

The process of cleavage most commonly produces a
a. zygote
b. blastula
c. gastrula
d. puff
e. third germ layer

a

Which embryonic tissue is incorrectly associated with its derivative?
a. skin from mesoderm
b. nervous system from ectoderm
c. stomach lining from endoderm
d. circulatory system from mesoderm
e. skeletal system from mesoderm

c

Muscles differentiate from which tissue?
a. ectoderm
b. endoderm
c. mesoderm
d. ectoderm and endoderm
e. endoderm and mesoderm

d

Shortly after fertilization, successive cell divisions convert the zygote into a multicellular embryo during a process known as
a. meiosis
b. parthenogenesis
c. embryonic induction
d. cleavage
e. invagination

c

The mesoderm is responsible for the formation of all of the following adult tissues EXCEPT the
a. reproductive system
b. circulatory system
c. nervous system
d. muscle system
e. excretory system

a

In the following list of developmental events, which occurs last?
a. tissue specialization and growth
b. gamete formation
c. gastrulation
d. cleavage
e. organ formation

e

In the human, which of the following events would occur over the longest period of time?
a. sperm production
b. cleavage
c. fertilization
d. gastrulation
e. growth and tissue specialization

b

Before gastrulation, the future phenotype of cell lineages is largely established by which of the following acquired during cleavage?
a. the genotype
b. the portion of egg cytoplasm
c. surface recognition factors on the plasma membrane
d. the number and type of organelles
e. all of the choices

d

Which of the following affects the developmental pathways that different embryonic cells eventually will follow?
a. sperm nucleus
b. egg nucleus
c. sperm cytoplasm
d. egg cytoplasm
e. both egg nucleus and sperm cytoplasm

d

Which of the following statements is false?
a. Yolky eggs have most of their yolk near the vegetal pole.
b. The particular sector of the egg cytoplasm helps control the differences among cells.
c. The amount of yolk present in the egg influences cleavage patterns.
d. The cells of the animal pole are larger than the cells of the vegetal pole.
e. There is so much yolk in the eggs of reptiles and birds that cleavage is incomplete.

a

The gray crescent is
a. formed when the sperm penetrates the egg
b. not necessary for gastrulation
c. the portion of the egg where the yolk is found
d. at the vegetal pole of the egg
e. the point where the first cleavage occurs

e

Which of the following is a single-layered, hollow ball of cells?
a. cleavage
b. morula
c. gastrula
d. zygote
e. blastula

b

During which of the following stages do cells of identical genetic makeup become structurally and functionally different from one another according to the genetically controlled developmental program of the species?
a. cleavage
b. cell differentiation
c. morphogenesis
d. metamorphosis
e. ovulation

b

In the process of cell differentiation,
a. Some daughter cells usually receive varying assortments of genes.
b. Cells with identical assortments of genes come to have different individual genes expressed.
c. Cells become specialized as a result of meiosis.
d. Daughter cells acquire different characteristics as a result of mutations that have occurred.
e. All of the choices.

c

Complex maneuvers, such as the folding involved in formation of the neural tube, are accomplished primarily by
a. adhesive cues
b. chemical gradients
c. microtubules and microfilaments
d. controlled cell death
e. chemotaxis

b

Homeotic genes
a. cause lethal mutations
b. control blocks of genes necessary for pattern formation
c. are found only in fruit flies where they are responsible for odd placement of appendages
d. are also known as "fate maps"
e. operate only in individuals with two genes of the same kind

a

Sperm are produced in the
a. testes
b. vas deferens
c. epididymis
d. prostate gland
e. penis

e

Seminal fluid is produced by the
a. prostate gland
b. seminal vesicle
c. bulbourethral gland
d. urinary bladder
e. all of the choices, except the urinary bladder

b

The seminal vesicles ("sperm vessels") are misnamed. Sperm are actually stored in the
a. vas deferens
b. epididymis
c. prostate
d. scrotum
e. urethra

b

The primary reproductive organ in the human female is the
a. uterus
b. ovary
c. vagina
d. clitoris
e. vulva

c

Which mammal does NOT exhibit seasonal sexual activities?
a. whale
b. cat
c. primate
d. horse
e. dog

c

The cervix is part of the
a. vulva
b. ovary
c. uterus
d. oviduct
e. vagina

c

Which of the following statements is false?
a. Ovaries produce female sex hormones.
b. The myometrium forms the major part of the uterus.
c. Fertilization occurs in the vagina.
d. Implantation occurs in the uterus.
e. The vagina serves as the birth canal.

c

Hot flashes and night sweats affect 75 percent of women during
a. endometriosis
b. fibroid flare ups
c. menopause
d. menstruation
e. PMS

d

Which of the following statements is NOT true of the human female?
a. At ovulation, the egg is in the secondary oocyte stage.
b. The process of meiosis may take 30 to 50 years to complete.
c. The primary oocytes lay dormant until puberty.
d. She will produce more gametes than her male counterpart.
e. It is possible that more than one egg will be released at ovulation.

c

Menstrual flow results in the discharge of
a. the follicle
b. the corpus luteum
c. the endometrial lining
d. surface cells from the vagina
e. blood from the blood vessels on the outer surface of the uterus

a

Ovulation is triggered primarily by
a. a surge of LH that occurs halfway through the menstrual cycle
b. the falling levels of estrogen
c. the rising levels of progesterone
d. a surge of LH that occurs halfway through the menstrual cycle, and the rising levels of progesteron
e. the falling levels of estrogen and the rising levels of progesterone

b

Ovulation involves the
a. production of the first polar body
b. release of a secondary oocyte
c. beginning of the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle
d. suspension of the meiotic process
e. deterioration of the corpus luteum

c

FSH and LH are secreted by the
a. hypothalamus
b. ovaries
c. anterior pituitary
d. testes
e. uterus

d

Menstrual flow begins in response to
a. rising levels of FSH and LH
b. falling levels of estrogen
c. falling levels of progesterone
d. falling levels of estrogen and progesterone
e. rising levels of LH and falling levels of FSH

a

Orgasm is necessary for
a. ejaculation of semen
b. pregnancy
c. erection
d. sexual arousal
e. all of the choices

d

Fertilization in mammals occurs in the
a. ovary
b. uterus
c. vagina
d. oviduct
e. follicle

a

The embryo is recognizable as human and is called a fetus by which week of pregnancy?
a. eighth
b. twelfth
c. sixteenth
d. twentieth
e. twenty-fourth

c

During a human pregnancy, implantation begins at which stage?
a. zygote
b. early cleavage
c. blastocyst
d. fetus
e. morula

b

Implantation occurs in the
a. ovary
b. uterus
c. vagina
d. oviduct
e. follicle

d

The first several cleavages after fertilization occur in the
a. uterus
b. ovary
c. vagina
d. oviduct
e. any of these, except vagina

a

Which of the following systems is the first of those listed to begin development in the human embryo?
a. nervous system
b. excretory system
c. reproductive system
d. skeletal system
e. endocrine system

c

What hormone is most involved in labor?
a. estrogen
b. prolactin
c. oxytocin
d. prostaglandin
e. progesterone

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