By what period of time did England's feudal lords lose much of their power to the king?
the late Middle Ages
Originally, France shipped _____ and _____ to England; England shipped _____ to France.
wine; beer; textiles
Originally, Flanders shipped _____ to England; England shipped _____ to Flanders.
Between what two years did the Hundred Years' War take place?
1337 and 1453
How many years did the Hundred Years' War last?
In what year did the last male member of France's Capetian dynasty die?
After France's last Capetian ruler died, who wanted the throne, even though he was not French?
What country allied with France in the Hundred Years' War?
What country allied with England in the Hundred Years' War?
Why did Scotland side with France in the Hundred Years' War?
Scotland had been warring with England.
Why was Edward III originally a vassal of the French king?
He held fiefs in France.
Who were Edward III's parents?
King Edward II of England and Isabella, daughter of the Capetian King Philip IV
Who won most of the Hundred Years' War battles at first?
Who ended up winning the Hundred Years' War?
At what battle, won by England, did English foot soldiers use longbows?
the Battle of Agincourt
Longbows could fire arrows that hit targets up to _____ away.
Name three weapons that weakened knightly warfare.
longbows, gunpowder, and cannons
What was the long-term effect of the Hundred Years' War on England?
Parliament, especially the House of Commons, gained more power over the king. It won the rights of a special council to advise the king and to consider new taxes before they were discussed by the House of Lords. By the late 1300s, the king needed Parliament's consent on all special taxes.
In what year did the War of the Roses take place?
What two groups fought in the War of the Roses?
the York and Lancaster families
What was the badge of the House of York in the War of the Roses?
a white rose
What was the badge of the House of Lancaster in the War of the Roses?
a red rose
Who won the War of the Roses?
Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster
Who lost the War of the Roses?
Richard III of the House of York
What was Henry Tudor's later name?
King Henry VII
What two French groups clashed with each other during the Hundred Years' War?
the House of Burgundy and the House of Orleans
What French group sided with the English during the Hundred Years' War?
the House of Burgundy
In what year was Charles VII crowned king of France with Joan of Arc's help?
Who did Joan of Arc see in her dreams?
Saint Michael, the archangel
How old was Joan of Arc when she fought in the Hundred Years' War?
17 years old
What test did Charles VII conduct on Joan of Arc?
He had his noblemen dress in royal clothes, while he wore commoners' clothes, to see if she recognized him (despite never having seen Charles VII before).
In what battle did Joan of Arc lead the French army?
the Battle of Orleans
Why did the English accuse Joan of Arc of being a witch?
They were jealous at having been defeated.
In what year was Joan of Arc captured and taken to England?
How did Joan of Arc die?
She was burned at the stake after being convicted of witchcraft.
In what year, much after her death, was Joan of Arc made a saint?
What are the two conflicting accounts of Joan of Arc's story?
One account says that she did not fight in the war. Another says that she did and actually physically killed the Earl of Salisbury.
During the Hundred Years' War, who controlled finances and passed laws in France?
the Estates General
What three groups made up the Estates General?
clergy (First Estate), nobles (Second Estate), and commoners (Third Estate)
True/False: After the Hundred Years' War, the Estates General gained power.
Who succeeded Charles VII as king of France?
Under whom did France become a united country?
Until what time period did French feudal lords remain wealthy and important?
True/False: French peasants, unlike those in England, gained little freedom over the Middle Ages and still owed services to the manor and its lord.
In what year did Spain become a united nation?
What was Joan of Arc's nickname?
the Maid of Orleans
Under whom did Spain become a united nation?
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
In what year did the Reconquista of Spain end?
What event signaled the end of the Reconquista in Spain?
the capture of Granada, the Moors' last stronghold in Spain
What kingdom did Ferdinand and Isabella add to Spain in 1515?
What palace was one of the most important buildings retaken from the Moors?
the Alhambra Palace in Granada
What two groups did Ferdinand and Isabella order to become Christians or leave Spain?
Jews and Moors
Did most Jews and Moors under Ferdinand and Isabella become Christians or leave Spain?
They left Spain.
On what peninsula is Spain situated?
the Iberian Peninsula
What term is given to the period of time in which all Jews and Moors were persecuted by Ferdinand and Isabella?
In the early Middle Ages, how was the Holy Roman emperor voted for?
The rulers of German states and the Pope elected him.
What did Emperor Charles IV's decree issued in 1356 state?
Only seven electors (three archbishops and four German princes) would choose the emperor.
Who had the true power in the Holy Roman Empire?
the individual rulers of states
What area did the Habsburg family originally rule?
a small state in Switzerland
What were two ways the Habsburgs gained power and wealth?
They arranged marriages with powerful families and followed careful strategies of armed conquest to gradually win land and power.
What three regions were brought under Habsburg control by Maximilian I's marriage?
the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy
What Habsburg member married into the Spanish royal family, gaining large Spanish and Italian holdings?
Philip, Maximilian I's son
Did the Habsburgs unite the Holy Roman Empire?
What prevented Italy from being united?
the Papal States, which were in the middle of the Italian Peninsula
In what three ways was power gained in the Holy Roman Empire?
marriages, investing powerful bishops who were sympathetic to a ruler's position, and supervising duchies to place sympathetic vassals in them