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By what period of time did England's feudal lords lose much of their power to the king?

the late Middle Ages

Originally, France shipped _____ and _____ to England; England shipped _____ to France.

wine; beer; textiles

Originally, Flanders shipped _____ to England; England shipped _____ to Flanders.

cloth; fleece

Between what two years did the Hundred Years' War take place?

1337 and 1453

How many years did the Hundred Years' War last?

116

In what year did the last male member of France's Capetian dynasty die?

1328

After France's last Capetian ruler died, who wanted the throne, even though he was not French?

Edward III

What country allied with France in the Hundred Years' War?

Scotland

What country allied with England in the Hundred Years' War?

Flanders

Why did Scotland side with France in the Hundred Years' War?

Scotland had been warring with England.

Why was Edward III originally a vassal of the French king?

He held fiefs in France.

Who were Edward III's parents?

King Edward II of England and Isabella, daughter of the Capetian King Philip IV

Who won most of the Hundred Years' War battles at first?

England

Who ended up winning the Hundred Years' War?

France

At what battle, won by England, did English foot soldiers use longbows?

the Battle of Agincourt

Longbows could fire arrows that hit targets up to _____ away.

200 yards

Name three weapons that weakened knightly warfare.

longbows, gunpowder, and cannons

What was the long-term effect of the Hundred Years' War on England?

Parliament, especially the House of Commons, gained more power over the king. It won the rights of a special council to advise the king and to consider new taxes before they were discussed by the House of Lords. By the late 1300s, the king needed Parliament's consent on all special taxes.

In what year did the War of the Roses take place?

1455

What two groups fought in the War of the Roses?

the York and Lancaster families

What was the badge of the House of York in the War of the Roses?

a white rose

What was the badge of the House of Lancaster in the War of the Roses?

a red rose

Who won the War of the Roses?

Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster

Who lost the War of the Roses?

Richard III of the House of York

What was Henry Tudor's later name?

King Henry VII

What two French groups clashed with each other during the Hundred Years' War?

the House of Burgundy and the House of Orleans

What French group sided with the English during the Hundred Years' War?

the House of Burgundy

In what year was Charles VII crowned king of France with Joan of Arc's help?

1429

Who did Joan of Arc see in her dreams?

Saint Michael, the archangel

How old was Joan of Arc when she fought in the Hundred Years' War?

17 years old

What test did Charles VII conduct on Joan of Arc?

He had his noblemen dress in royal clothes, while he wore commoners' clothes, to see if she recognized him (despite never having seen Charles VII before).

In what battle did Joan of Arc lead the French army?

the Battle of Orleans

Why did the English accuse Joan of Arc of being a witch?

They were jealous at having been defeated.

In what year was Joan of Arc captured and taken to England?

1430

How did Joan of Arc die?

She was burned at the stake after being convicted of witchcraft.

In what year, much after her death, was Joan of Arc made a saint?

1920

What are the two conflicting accounts of Joan of Arc's story?

One account says that she did not fight in the war. Another says that she did and actually physically killed the Earl of Salisbury.

During the Hundred Years' War, who controlled finances and passed laws in France?

the Estates General

What three groups made up the Estates General?

clergy (First Estate), nobles (Second Estate), and commoners (Third Estate)

True/False: After the Hundred Years' War, the Estates General gained power.

False

Who succeeded Charles VII as king of France?

Louis XI

Under whom did France become a united country?

Louis XI

Until what time period did French feudal lords remain wealthy and important?

the mid-1700s

True/False: French peasants, unlike those in England, gained little freedom over the Middle Ages and still owed services to the manor and its lord.

True

In what year did Spain become a united nation?

1479

What was Joan of Arc's nickname?

the Maid of Orleans

Under whom did Spain become a united nation?

Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

In what year did the Reconquista of Spain end?

1492

What event signaled the end of the Reconquista in Spain?

the capture of Granada, the Moors' last stronghold in Spain

What kingdom did Ferdinand and Isabella add to Spain in 1515?

Navarre

What palace was one of the most important buildings retaken from the Moors?

the Alhambra Palace in Granada

What two groups did Ferdinand and Isabella order to become Christians or leave Spain?

Jews and Moors

Did most Jews and Moors under Ferdinand and Isabella become Christians or leave Spain?

They left Spain.

On what peninsula is Spain situated?

the Iberian Peninsula

What term is given to the period of time in which all Jews and Moors were persecuted by Ferdinand and Isabella?

the Inquisition

In the early Middle Ages, how was the Holy Roman emperor voted for?

The rulers of German states and the Pope elected him.

What did Emperor Charles IV's decree issued in 1356 state?

Only seven electors (three archbishops and four German princes) would choose the emperor.

Who had the true power in the Holy Roman Empire?

the individual rulers of states

What area did the Habsburg family originally rule?

a small state in Switzerland

What were two ways the Habsburgs gained power and wealth?

They arranged marriages with powerful families and followed careful strategies of armed conquest to gradually win land and power.

What three regions were brought under Habsburg control by Maximilian I's marriage?

the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Burgundy

What Habsburg member married into the Spanish royal family, gaining large Spanish and Italian holdings?

Philip, Maximilian I's son

Did the Habsburgs unite the Holy Roman Empire?

No

What prevented Italy from being united?

the Papal States, which were in the middle of the Italian Peninsula

In what three ways was power gained in the Holy Roman Empire?

marriages, investing powerful bishops who were sympathetic to a ruler's position, and supervising duchies to place sympathetic vassals in them

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