What is the medical model?
think of abnormal behavior as a disease
What was the affect of the medical model?
improvements/more humane treatments of those with disorders; no more superstition.
What is Szasz's critique of the medical model?
converts moral and social questions about what is acceptable behavior to question
What is diagnosis?
distinguishing what disorder you have
What is etiology?
the cause and developmental history of illness
What is prognosis?
forecast about the cause of illness
What are the three criteria of abnormal behavior?
deviance, maladaptive behavior, and personal distress
What is deviance?
violating standards, expectations, and norms of culture
What is maladaptive behavior?
everyday behavior is impaired (social or occupational)
What is personal distress?
when people express their subjective pain and suffering
Diagnosis involves value judgements, what does this mean?
reflects values, social trends, and political forces of culture
What do normality and abnormality exist on?
What are the different axes (dimensions) of classifying disorders?
clinical syndromes, personality disorders/retardation, general medical conditions, psychosocial/environmental problems, global assessment functioning (cpgpg)
What are Anxiety Disorders?
marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
What are the five types of anxiety disorders?
generalized, phobic, panic, OCD, and post-traumatic stress (gppop)
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any threat (trembling, muscle tension, too much worrying over minor things)
Which sex has more generalized anxiety?
What is phobic disorder?
irrational fears of an object or situation that presents no danger
What are some common types of phobic disorders?
arachnophobia and claustrophobia
What is Panic Disorder?
recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety and are sudden and unexpected
What is agoraphobia?
fear of going out in public caused by panic disorder
What does panic disorder usually develop?
adolescence, early adulthood
What is OCD?
obsessive thoughts that compel people to act in certain way
What kind of thoughts do OCD people have?
inflicting harm on others, personal failures, suicide, sexual stuff
What do the rituals of OCD people do?
relieve anxiety produced by obsession
What is post-traumatic stress disorder?
psychological disturbance following traumatic event
In which sex is post-traumatic more frequently seen?
What are some symptoms of Post-traumatic stress?
nightmares, flashbacks, numbness, alienation
What decides how vulnerable someone will be to PSTD?
how vulnerable they are to the situation
What types of factors contribute to anxiety disorders?
classical conditioning, observational learning, cognitive/personality factors, and biological factors
What are the biological factors of anxiety disorders?
concordance rates, anxiety sensitivity, and neurochemical factors
What are concordance rates?
the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives that exhibit same disorder
What do high concordance rates suggest?
that there is a disposition to anxiety disorders
How is anxiety neurochemical?
drugs that reduce anxiety alter neurotransmitter activity at synapses that release GABA
How do classical and operant conditioning contribute to anxiety disorders?
classical conditioning helps you acquire a fear and operant conditioning helps you keep fear.
How does preparedness work?
we are predisposed to fear some things easier than others
What is the updated notion for preparedness and how does it work?
it is called the evolved module for fear learning; phobic stimuli associated with evolutionary threats produce more rapid conditioned fear
How do certain styles of thinking make people more vulnerable to anxiety? (3)
misinterpretation, focusing on threat, selectively recalling info that seems threatening
Do high or low levels of stress contribute to anxiety?
What is the DSM?
diagnostic and statistic manual; categorizes all different psychological disorders
What is an OCD checker?
checks everything off
What is an OCD counter?