Gender-related development index
measures the inequality between the sexes in life expectancy, education and the standard of living
Core and periphery
The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales.
Gross national income (now used in preference to gross national product—GNP). The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries.
Transfers of money/goods by foreign workers to their home countries
Human Development Index (HDI)
Uses literacy rates, life expectancy and GDP per capita on a PPP basis to create the HDI. This was created to balance the social measures of development with an economic measure. It is a main indicator to compare countries.
GDP- (Gross Domestic Product)
broad measure of an economy's performance, measures all the economic output in a country in a given year, quantifying all the goods and services produced in a country. .
the social process of becoming or being made marginal (especially as a group within the larger society e.g. LEDCs and MEDCs)
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small buisiness worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write
Millennium Development Goals
Eight international development goals that all members of the United Nations have agreed to achieve by 2015. Examples are eradicating hunger, providing education, and tackling diseases like AIDS and Malaria
Structural adjustment program
Economic policies imposed on less developed counties by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizen more for services.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
export processing zone
labour intensive manufacturing centers that involve the import of raw materials and export of factory products.
Free trade Zones
zones in which manufacturing does not have to take place in order to gain trading privileges; such zones have become more characterized by retailing.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
the measure of average earnings in relation to local prices, i.e how much you can buy for your money.
Trade that happens without barriers such as tariffs or subsidies, trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, or other restrictions
financial assistance, provided by the government, paid to farmers & agribusiness to supplement their income & manage the supply of agriculture.
Forgiveness of debts owed by developing nations to industrialized nations or institutions such as the World Bank, in order to allow the government to shift funds toward social development (development to help their people).
A group of nations that lower or abolish trade barriers among members. Examples include the European Union and the nations of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Countries not in the Bloc do not recieve any benifit
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
A measure of income inequality within a population, ranging from zero for complete equality, to one if one person has all the income.