Testing and Iindividual differences RM

32 terms by brainywriter 

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standardization sample

group of people representing the whole population

norms

standards of performance used as a rubric to test everyone

Flynn effect

need to restandardize because data indicates people gotten smarter over the past 50 years

Reliability

measure of how consistent a test is in the measurements it provides

test-retest

giving a test then later when they may have forgotten the material, retesting them

split half

one group takes half of the test and another group takes the other half

equivalent form

different groups take differentbut simlar tests covering the same concepts

Reliability coefficient

if test is perfectly reliable, coefficient is one

validity

extent that a test measures what it intends to measure
-calculated by comparing how well test results correlate to other measures that assess what the test supposed to predict

Predictive validity

there is a correlation between the test and future performance

content validity

measures the degree to which the test measures what it is supposed to measure

Construct validity

degree to which the test indeed measures what it is supposed to test

projective tests

when ambiguous stimuli, open to interpretation, are presented

inventory-type tests

when participants answer a standard series of question
don't typically allow free response

Rorschach Inkblot test

Projective test, sequence of ten inkblots, people asked to observe and characterize images which show their personality

Thematic Apperception Test

projective, participant asked to generate a story accompanying a set of random pictures, their personality is then psychoanalyzed

Power tests

gauge abilities in certain areas, extremely difficult where it is unlikely to get 100% (Olympiads)

speed tests

have very easy items, but time is limited

Achievement tests

assess knowledge gained (AP tests)

Aptitude tests

evaluate a person's abilities (driving test)

Intelligence

defined as goal direct adaptive thinking

Alfred Binet

French psychologist who first began to measure intelligence through his test, Stanford-Binet Scale

Stanford-Binet Scale

test originally measured child development but became one of the first intelligence tests

Intelligence Quotient

IG, computes how a person's score is above or below the average

Charles Spearman

said there was general intelligence (g factor) that was the basis of all other intelligence

factor analysis

statistical measure for analyzing test data developed by spearman

Robert Sternberg

proposed intelligence has three components: analytical, practical, and creative

Louis Thurstone

said intelligence can come in many different forms

Howard Gardner

Identified multiple intelligences like: verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal (self awareness)

Daniel Goleman

created programs to enhance people's emotional intelligence (ability o recognize others intents and motivations)

Heritability coefficiet

ranges from 0-1, measures proportion of variation among individuals that can be attributed to genetic effects

psychometrics

psychological testing

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