Blood, Lymph, and Immunity v2 by Homer

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version 2

three main functions of blood:

transportation, regulation, and defense

Composition of blood

Plasma (liquid portion of blood), Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes

three regulation jobs of blood:

body temperature regulation, tissue fluid content regulation, and blood pH regulation

Whole blood

Blood contained in the cardiovascular system

Peripheral Blood

whole blood flowing through the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart.

hemoconcentration

less plasma in bloodstream so cells become more concentrated

hemodilution

excess fluid dilutes cells in blood

Blood functions as a defense system through the presence of _____ _____ ____?

White Blood Cells

Phagocytosis

allows damage to blood vessels to be controlled.

Erythrocyte (Red Blood Cell)

carry oxygen from lungs to cells and tissues.
* look like biconcave disks

Leukocyte (White Blood Cell)

provide defense from foreign invaders in the body.
* Granulocytic or Agranulocytic

Thrombocyte (Platelet)

help prevent leaks from damaged blood vessels

Hematopoiesis

the production of all blood cells

Erythropoiesis

the production of red blood cells

Leukopoisis

process of formation of white blood cells (leukocytes)

Thrombopoiesis

the production of platelets

types of Leukocytes:

Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, Monocytes, and Lymphocytes.

Eosiniphils

make up only 5% or less of total white blood cell count.
* often have a segmented nucleus that has only 2 lobes

Basophils

cell type that is least often seen in the circulation and therefore, least understood

Neutrophils

the most numerous white blood cell in the circulation of a dog, cat, or horse.

Band Neutrophil

Immature neutrophils that have a horseshoe nucleus w/out any segmentation

Monocytes

Largest cells in white blood cell category
* immature macrophages

Lymphocytes

the only white blood cell that doesn't have phagocytic abilities and does not mature in the bone marrow.

Two types of T lymphocytes (T-cells):

Killer T-cells & Helper T-cells

3 types of Lymphocytes:

T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, Natural killer cells

Plasma

fluid portion of the blood and is about 93% water. Also makes up the majority of the blood.

biconcave disc

shape used to describe a red blood cell

3 important functions of the biconcave disc shape:

Deformable (but not elastic), provides more membrane surface, and a shorter diffusion distance.

Function of a mature red blood cell?

carries oxygen to all parts of the body

hemoglobin

protein in red blood cells that binds with oxygen

Two components that make up Hemoglobin:

"Heme" & "Globin"

Heme

pigment portion produced in mitochondria
* contains iron

Globin

protein produced by ribosomes

how many oxygen molecules can each Hemoglobin molecule carry?

4 oxygen molecules

two physiological states of Hemoglobin?

Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin

Oxyhemoglobin

hemoglobin carrying oxygen

Deoxyhemoglobin

hemoglobin that has given up its oxygen

How is carbon dioxide transported?

By transforming into carbonic acid.

Senescence

The process of aging

extravascular hemolysis

the breaking down of old red blood cells outside of the circulation by macrophages.

Bilirubin

what "leftover" heme is converted into before it is removed from the body

intravascular hemolysis

destruction that takes place within the blood vessels

haptoglobin

protein that transports hemoglobin to macrophages during intravascular hemolysis

Anemia

decreased ability to carry oxygen to the blood.

two major abnormalities that cause anemia:

low number of mature blood cells circulating, not enough hemoglobin being produced.

Polycythemia

abnormal increase of red blood cells

Relative Polycythemia

occurs with loss of loss of fluid from the blood or hemoconcentration.
*occurs in dehydrated animals

Compensatory Polycythemia

low levels of oxygen cause an increased production of red blood cells stimulated through the bone marrow. *result of hypoxia

Polycythemia rubra vera

rare bone marrow disease, charecterized by an increased production of red blood cells for an unknown reason.

Granulocytes

cells named for the color of the granules in their cytoplasm when viewed on a stained smear.

three cell types included in the Granulocyte group

neutrophils, eosinifils, basophils

Granulopoiesis

formation of Granulocytes

diapedesis

process in which neutraphils and other white blood cells leave the circulation

Chemotaxis

process in which neutrophils are attracted to a site of infection

Opsonins

plasma protein that usually contains a specific antibody

Opsonization

process in which allows a neutraphil to recognize a microorganism as a foreign invader.

the 2 pools of neutraphils found in peripheral blood:

circulating pools and marginal pools

circulating pools

nutriphils within the lumen of blood vessels

marginal pools

line the walls of small blood vessels in the spleen, lungs, and abdominal organs.

Mast Cells

share some common characteristics with Basophils

two granules present in Basophils:

histamine and heparin

Agranulocytes

cells that do not have specific staining granules in their cytoplasm.

two cell types included in the Agranulocyte group:

Monocytes and Lymphocytes

Histomine

helps initiate inflamation and allergic reactions

Heparin

Acts as a localized anticoagulent to keep blood flowing to an injured or damaged

Macrophages

clean up cellular debris, ingest antigens and present them to lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells) to destroy the antigen, and ingest foreign substances

T lymphocytes (T-cells)

lymphocytes that are processed in the thymus, but found in the blood

Killer T-cells

T-cells responsible for destroying cells during cell-mediated immunity

Helper T-cells

T-cells that produce "Lymphokines" that activate killer T-cells

lymphokines

protein responsible for cell-mediated immunity

B lymphocytes

lymphocytes that are processed in the bone marrow.
* produce Antibodies( "Anti-Bob's" )

humoral immunity

when the B-cell encounters the antigen it is programed against, it transforms into a plasma cell and releases antibodies

Immunoglobins

antibodies that plasma cells produce, store, and release

Natural killer cells

Lymphocytes that have the ability to kill some types of tumor cells and cells infected with certain viruses.

memory cells

clones of the original lymphocyte, survive in the lymphnoid tissue and wait for a second exposure to the same antigen.

lymphocytosis

an increased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.

lymphopenia

a decreased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.

Lymphatic system

a series of vessels or ducts that carries excess tissue fluid to blood vessels near the heart so the fluid can be put back into the circulation (via *
Vena Cava).

four primary functions of the lymphatic system:

removes excess tissue fluid,waste material transport,filtration, and (works as) a protein transport mechanism.

Chyle

Lymph from the digestive system

lymph nodes

small,kidney shaped structures located at various points of lymph vessels.

spleen

Has both lymphatic and hematological functions.
* largest organ associated with the lymphatic system

4 functions of the spleen

Blood storage (in red pulp), removal of foreign materials, removal of dead/ dying/ abnormal red blood cells, Lymphocyte cloning

Splenectomy

surgical removal of the spleen.

white pulp

part of the spleen that contains localized areas of lymphoid tissue

red pulp

part of the spleen that contains blood vessels, tissue macrophages, and blood sinuses (storage)

Thymus

Lymphoid organ that is very prominent in young animals and shrinks as animal matures.
* where T cells are processed before being sent out to the peripheral lymphoid tissue.

Tonsils

Nodules of lymphoid tissue that are not covered with a capsule.Most promanent in young animals
* Are not Lymph nodes!

3 ways tonsils differ from lymph nodes:

tonsils are; found close to moist epithelial surfaces, do not have a capsule, and found at the beginning of the lymph drainage system (not along the lymph vessels).

GALT

lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the small intestine.
* Classified as a central lymphatic tissue because it can process B cells; can function as peripheral tissue due to the large amount of lymphocytes it contains.

the major function of the immune system:

protects animals from anything that can cause damage or disease to the animal.

Anaphylaxis

a life threatening allergic reaction/response
* is an example of immune mediated disease.

Nonspecific immunity

tissues, cells, and processes that protect an animal against anything that it recognizes as foreign

6 types of Nonspecific immunity:

protective barriers, inflammation, phagocytosis, Natural killer cells, "inferon", and "compliment"

specific immunity

a unique reaction aimed at destroying specific antigens.

two types of non specific immunity:

Cell-mediated immunity & Humoral immunity

Cell-mediated immunity

function of T cells that attach to antigens on the surface of foreign cells

Cytotoxic T cells (a.k.a. Killer T Cells)

attach to antigenic cells and destroy them

Helper T cells

help the immune response by secreting lymphokines into the surrounding tissue

Suppressor T cells

help provide a degree of control over the Cell-mediated & the Humoral imune responces

Humoral immunity

the function of B cells
* the B cells transform into Plasma cells (active B cells)

Antibodies

specific protective proteins that function against specific antigens

3 things that can happen when an antibody and antigen meet and join

the antigens: are transformed into harmless substances; become agglutinated (stuck together) to get phagocytized by macrophages; or alter in shape and eventually rupture

Immunoglobulin (or Ig)

another name for Antibodies

5 general types of Imunoglobin (or Ig)

IgG;IgM;IgA;IgE;IgD

Memory cells

inactive T or B cell "clones" that circulate the blood or stay in the lymphoid tissue to wait for a second infection by the same antigen

layer of the lymph node that contains T cells:

cortex

layer of the lymph node that contains macrophages:

medulla

Active immunity

activating an animals immune system against a particular antigen through the use of vaccines.
* forms memory T and B cells protecting against future disease

passive immunity

administering performed antibodies that were not produced by the animal's own immune system.
* does not make memory T or B cells and does not protect against future infection

IgG

first immunoglobin made during first exposure to an antigen

IgM

Immunoglobin made when an animal is exposed to an antigen for a long time or a second time

IgA

Immunoglobin that can leave blood and enter tissue fluids; plays a role in protecting mucosal surfaces (ex: intestinal tract and lungs)

IgE

Immunoglobin associated with an allergic responce

IgD

function is unknown

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