three main functions of blood:
transportation, regulation, and defense
Composition of blood
Plasma (liquid portion of blood), Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes
three regulation jobs of blood:
body temperature regulation, tissue fluid content regulation, and blood pH regulation
Blood contained in the cardiovascular system
whole blood flowing through the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart.
less plasma in bloodstream so cells become more concentrated
excess fluid dilutes cells in blood
Blood functions as a defense system through the presence of _____ _____ ____?
White Blood Cells
allows damage to blood vessels to be controlled.
Erythrocyte (Red Blood Cell)
carry oxygen from lungs to cells and tissues.
* look like biconcave disks
Leukocyte (White Blood Cell)
provide defense from foreign invaders in the body.
* Granulocytic or Agranulocytic
help prevent leaks from damaged blood vessels
the production of all blood cells
the production of red blood cells
process of formation of white blood cells (leukocytes)
the production of platelets
types of Leukocytes:
Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, Monocytes, and Lymphocytes.
make up only 5% or less of total white blood cell count.
* often have a segmented nucleus that has only 2 lobes
cell type that is least often seen in the circulation and therefore, least understood
the most numerous white blood cell in the circulation of a dog, cat, or horse.
Immature neutrophils that have a horseshoe nucleus w/out any segmentation
Largest cells in white blood cell category
* immature macrophages
the only white blood cell that doesn't have phagocytic abilities and does not mature in the bone marrow.
Two types of T lymphocytes (T-cells):
Killer T-cells & Helper T-cells
3 types of Lymphocytes:
T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, Natural killer cells
fluid portion of the blood and is about 93% water. Also makes up the majority of the blood.
shape used to describe a red blood cell
3 important functions of the biconcave disc shape:
Deformable (but not elastic), provides more membrane surface, and a shorter diffusion distance.
Function of a mature red blood cell?
carries oxygen to all parts of the body
protein in red blood cells that binds with oxygen
Two components that make up Hemoglobin:
"Heme" & "Globin"
pigment portion produced in mitochondria
* contains iron
protein produced by ribosomes
how many oxygen molecules can each Hemoglobin molecule carry?
4 oxygen molecules
two physiological states of Hemoglobin?
Oxyhemoglobin and Deoxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin carrying oxygen
hemoglobin that has given up its oxygen
How is carbon dioxide transported?
By transforming into carbonic acid.
The process of aging
the breaking down of old red blood cells outside of the circulation by macrophages.
what "leftover" heme is converted into before it is removed from the body
destruction that takes place within the blood vessels
protein that transports hemoglobin to macrophages during intravascular hemolysis
decreased ability to carry oxygen to the blood.
two major abnormalities that cause anemia:
low number of mature blood cells circulating, not enough hemoglobin being produced.
abnormal increase of red blood cells
occurs with loss of loss of fluid from the blood or hemoconcentration.
*occurs in dehydrated animals
low levels of oxygen cause an increased production of red blood cells stimulated through the bone marrow. *result of hypoxia
Polycythemia rubra vera
rare bone marrow disease, charecterized by an increased production of red blood cells for an unknown reason.
cells named for the color of the granules in their cytoplasm when viewed on a stained smear.
three cell types included in the Granulocyte group
neutrophils, eosinifils, basophils
formation of Granulocytes
process in which neutraphils and other white blood cells leave the circulation
process in which neutrophils are attracted to a site of infection
plasma protein that usually contains a specific antibody
process in which allows a neutraphil to recognize a microorganism as a foreign invader.
the 2 pools of neutraphils found in peripheral blood:
circulating pools and marginal pools
nutriphils within the lumen of blood vessels
line the walls of small blood vessels in the spleen, lungs, and abdominal organs.
share some common characteristics with Basophils
two granules present in Basophils:
histamine and heparin
cells that do not have specific staining granules in their cytoplasm.
two cell types included in the Agranulocyte group:
Monocytes and Lymphocytes
helps initiate inflamation and allergic reactions
Acts as a localized anticoagulent to keep blood flowing to an injured or damaged
clean up cellular debris, ingest antigens and present them to lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells) to destroy the antigen, and ingest foreign substances
T lymphocytes (T-cells)
lymphocytes that are processed in the thymus, but found in the blood
T-cells responsible for destroying cells during cell-mediated immunity
T-cells that produce "Lymphokines" that activate killer T-cells
protein responsible for cell-mediated immunity
lymphocytes that are processed in the bone marrow.
* produce Antibodies( "Anti-Bob's" )
when the B-cell encounters the antigen it is programed against, it transforms into a plasma cell and releases antibodies
antibodies that plasma cells produce, store, and release
Natural killer cells
Lymphocytes that have the ability to kill some types of tumor cells and cells infected with certain viruses.
clones of the original lymphocyte, survive in the lymphnoid tissue and wait for a second exposure to the same antigen.
an increased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.
a decreased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.
a series of vessels or ducts that carries excess tissue fluid to blood vessels near the heart so the fluid can be put back into the circulation (via *
four primary functions of the lymphatic system:
removes excess tissue fluid,waste material transport,filtration, and (works as) a protein transport mechanism.
Lymph from the digestive system
small,kidney shaped structures located at various points of lymph vessels.
Has both lymphatic and hematological functions.
* largest organ associated with the lymphatic system
4 functions of the spleen
Blood storage (in red pulp), removal of foreign materials, removal of dead/ dying/ abnormal red blood cells, Lymphocyte cloning
surgical removal of the spleen.
part of the spleen that contains localized areas of lymphoid tissue
part of the spleen that contains blood vessels, tissue macrophages, and blood sinuses (storage)
Lymphoid organ that is very prominent in young animals and shrinks as animal matures.
* where T cells are processed before being sent out to the peripheral lymphoid tissue.
Nodules of lymphoid tissue that are not covered with a capsule.Most promanent in young animals
* Are not Lymph nodes!
3 ways tonsils differ from lymph nodes:
tonsils are; found close to moist epithelial surfaces, do not have a capsule, and found at the beginning of the lymph drainage system (not along the lymph vessels).
lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the small intestine.
* Classified as a central lymphatic tissue because it can process B cells; can function as peripheral tissue due to the large amount of lymphocytes it contains.
the major function of the immune system:
protects animals from anything that can cause damage or disease to the animal.
a life threatening allergic reaction/response
* is an example of immune mediated disease.
tissues, cells, and processes that protect an animal against anything that it recognizes as foreign
6 types of Nonspecific immunity:
protective barriers, inflammation, phagocytosis, Natural killer cells, "inferon", and "compliment"
a unique reaction aimed at destroying specific antigens.
two types of non specific immunity:
Cell-mediated immunity & Humoral immunity
function of T cells that attach to antigens on the surface of foreign cells
Cytotoxic T cells (a.k.a. Killer T Cells)
attach to antigenic cells and destroy them
Helper T cells
help the immune response by secreting lymphokines into the surrounding tissue
Suppressor T cells
help provide a degree of control over the Cell-mediated & the Humoral imune responces
the function of B cells
* the B cells transform into Plasma cells (active B cells)
specific protective proteins that function against specific antigens
3 things that can happen when an antibody and antigen meet and join
the antigens: are transformed into harmless substances; become agglutinated (stuck together) to get phagocytized by macrophages; or alter in shape and eventually rupture
Immunoglobulin (or Ig)
another name for Antibodies
5 general types of Imunoglobin (or Ig)
inactive T or B cell "clones" that circulate the blood or stay in the lymphoid tissue to wait for a second infection by the same antigen
layer of the lymph node that contains T cells:
layer of the lymph node that contains macrophages:
activating an animals immune system against a particular antigen through the use of vaccines.
* forms memory T and B cells protecting against future disease
administering performed antibodies that were not produced by the animal's own immune system.
* does not make memory T or B cells and does not protect against future infection
first immunoglobin made during first exposure to an antigen
Immunoglobin made when an animal is exposed to an antigen for a long time or a second time
Immunoglobin that can leave blood and enter tissue fluids; plays a role in protecting mucosal surfaces (ex: intestinal tract and lungs)
Immunoglobin associated with an allergic responce
function is unknown