Organ Systems: Structure and Function

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Liver

Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile

Alveoli

Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.

Thyroid

Produces thyroxine, which regulates metabolism throughout the body.

Kidneys

Removes urea, excess water, and other waste products.

Trachea

windpipe; tube through which air moves

Pulmonary Circulation

pathway of circulation between the heart and the lungs

Hemoglobin

iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

Heart

The hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs. 4 Chambers: Right and Left and Right Ventricles and Atriums.

Spleen

Helps cleanse the blood, removes damaged blood cells from the circulatory system, and stores lymphocytes that engulf and destroy bacteria.

Seminiferous Tubules

Narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes.

Skeletal Muscles

Muscles attached to bones that enable you to move voluntarily.

Epidermis

The outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates

Pancreas

A digestive gland whose enzyme secretions help break down food and secretes insulin and glucagon, which helps keep the level of the glucose in the blood stable.

Small Intestine

The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion and absorption takes place.

muscle, nervous, connective, and epithelial

Four basic types of tissue in the human body

Neurons

Individual cells in the nervous system that receive (sensory neurons), integrate (interneurons), and transmit (motor neurons) information.

Haversian Canals

tubes running through compact bone; contain blood vessels and nerves

Red Marrow

makes red blood cells, White Blood Cells, and Platelets.

ovaries

located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone. The female gonad that produces eggs.

actin

protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells

Arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

Veins

carry blood to the heart

keratin

tough, fibrous protein found in skin

muscle tissue

a body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move

epithelial tissue

tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs

nervous tissue

transmits nerve impulses throughout the body

connective tissue

a body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts

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