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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Hypertonic, can be defined as?
  2. Isovolemic Hypernatremia can cause Diabetes Insipidus Centrally, how?
  3. how is Determining volume status done?
  4. IVNa = sodium concentration of infusate 0.9% is how much mEq?
  5. if the Osmolal gap (OSM GAP) = OSM(measured) - OSM (calculated), is greater than 10 what does this indicate?
  1. a 154mEq
  2. b -Head trauma
    -CNS malignancy
  3. c -solutes outside-more water inside cells and cells shrink-brain can shrink and cause damage
  4. d -clinical assessment
  5. e -there are substances in the blood that aren't being measured, there are exogenous compounds that aren't in the equation (Mannitol=hyperosmolol diuretic, sorbitol=induce diarrhea, ethanol, methanol=blindness cheap alcohol, ethylene glycol=antifreeze poisoning)

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. -Restriction of water < 1 - 1.2 L/day
    -Restrict Na+ < 1 - 2 g/day
    -Improve circulating blood volume: to ↓ ADH release
  2. -more solutes inside cells and less outside-more water outside and cell lysis-cerebral edema
  3. -↓ serum Na+ concentration, ↑ measured ECF osmolality & tonicity
    -Severe hyperglycemia in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
  4. -true, Total amount of sodium in ECF is major determinant of size of ECFV
    -Amount of Na+ in ECF (& ECFV size) determined by balance between Na+ intake and Na+ excretion by kidneys
  5. 1/3 TBW

5 True/False Questions

  1. Diabetes Insipidus is defined as having what SX?-Uvol > 3 L/day, Uosm < 250 mOsm/kg = high urine volume and low osmolality
    -Response to Desmopressin determines if central or Nephrogenic
    -central-yes, DI (urine volume will go down)
    -nephrogenic-no, DI (urine volume remains high)-give thiazide instead!


  2. IVNa = sodium concentration of infusate 3% is how much mEq?154mEq


  3. Intracellular fluid volume (ICFV = inside cells)?2/3 TBW


  4. Signs and symptoms of hypernatremia include?-seizures, coma, permanent brain damage, respiratory arrest, brain herniation, death (severe <115)


  5. when treating Hypovolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia with Diuretics, what has to be considered?-Loop diuretics: proportional loss of Na+ and water (don't become hyponatremic!)
    -Thiazides: more Na+ loss than water (high chance of having a low serum Na)


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