a condition produced by repeated consumption of a natural or synthetic substance in which the person has become physically and psychologically dependent on the substance
occurs when the body has adjusted to a substance and incorporated it into the "normal" functioning of the body's tissues
the bodily increasingly adapts to a substance and requires larger and larger doses of it to achieve the same effect
the unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms people experience when they discontinue or markedly reduce using a substance on which they have become dependent (may include symptoms of anxiety, irritability, intense cravings, hallucinations, nausea, headache, and tremors).
process in which a consequence strengthens the behavior on which it is contingent
an event or item the individual finds pleasant or ants that is introduced or added after the behavior occurs (i.e. "buzz" or "rush")
consequence involves reducing or removing an aversive circumstance, such as pain or unpleasant feelings (i.e. relieve stress)
intense anxiety, tremors, frightening hallucinations that occur when blood alcohol level drops
Substance related cues
When people use substances, they associate with that activity the specific internal and environmental stimuli that are regularly present
sensitization theory of addiction: dopamine enhances the salience of stimuli associated with substance use so that they become increasingly powerful in directing behavior.
this portion of the brain may control the desire to smoke: smokers who suffer a stroke with damage to that area instantly lose their desire to smoke
Cigarette smoke has high concentrations of which is readily absorbed by the bloodstream and rapidly affects the person's physiological functioning, such as by reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
the addictive chemical in cigarette smoke and produces rapid and powerful physiological effects
in the lungs quickly absorb the nicotine and transmit it to the blood, the blood carries the nicotine to the brain, where it leads to the release of various chemicals that activate both the central and sympathetic nervous systems, which arouse the body, increasing alertness, heart rate and blood pressure
death of liver cells which are then replaced y permanent, nonfunctional scar tissue. When the scar tissue becomes extensive, the liver is less able to cleanse the blood and regulate its composition
refers to illegal chemicals and prescription and nonprescription medicine that people may take into their bodies
chemicals that produce physiological and psychological arousal, keeping the user awake and making the world seem to race by (amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine)
decrease arousal and increase relaxation. People use these to reduce anxiety and induce sleep (tranquilizers, barbiturates, "downers,")
perceptual distortions (marijuana, mescaline, LSD, PCP)
Produces feelings of exhilaration; low potential for causing physical dependence, but chronic use of these drugs can lead to psychological dependence
opiates- sedatives that relieve pain, produce a euphoric and relaxed feeling (morphine, codeine, heroin) generally cause intense physical and psychological dependence
simple and complex sugars that are sources of energy for the body
Glucose- found in foods made of animal products
Fructose- found in fruits and honey
"fats" that provide energy for the body
Saturated and polyunsaturated fats and cholesterol
Composed of amino acids: about half of the 20 or so known amino acids are essential for body development and functioning and must be provided by our diet. Important for the body's synthesis of new cell material
organic chemicals that regulate metabolism and functions of the body
Used in converting nutrients to energy, producing hormones, breaking down waste products and toxins
fat soluble vitamins
vitamins that dissolve in fats and are stored in the body's fatty tissue. Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Water soluble vitamins
the body stores very little of these vitamins and excretes excess quantities as waste. Vitamins B and C
inorganic substances, such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, iron, iodine, and zinc, all of which are important in body development and functioning
Calcium and phosphorus
components of bones and teeth
Potassium and sodium
involved in nerve transmission
helps transport oxygen in the blood
Sucrose (table sugar)
Lactose (milk products)
Starch (plant products)
a B vitamin that is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube deficits (NTDs)
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
when this is added to foods, it can cause heightened BP and sweating
ranges from just avoiding red meat to strictly using only plant foods and no animal products whatsoever
is the main dietary culprit in atherosclerosis
deposit of fatty plaques in blood vessels
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
is related to increased plaque deposits.
"Bad cholesterol" because it mixes with other substances to form plaques
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
linked to decreased likelihood of plaque buildup
"good cholesterol" seems to carry LDL away to be processed or removed by the liver
are in most fats and increase the risk of heart disease
Omega-3 fatty acids
occur at high levels in fish. they reduce serum triglycerides and raise HDL
are in oils and increase LDL and lower HDL
proposes that each person's body has a certain or "set" weight that it strives to maintain. When the body deviates from the set-body, the body (in particular, the hypothalamus) takes corrective measures to increase or decrease eating and metabolism
monitors 2 hormones leptin and insulin that increase or decrease in proportion to the amount of body fat the person has
hormone that regulates circuits in the hypothalamus that stimulate and inhibit eating and metabolism
hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood
people tend to have high serum levels of insulin or hyperinsulinemia.
high serum levels of insulin. Increases one's sensations of hunger, perceived pleasantness of sweet tasts, and food consumption.
episodes in which a person eats far more than most people would in a fairly short period, such as a couple of hours, and feels unable to control that behavior during that time
increase the person's commitment to and self-efficacy for change
help deal with everyday difficulties encountered while trying to stick to diets
drug that causes decreased absorption of ingested fat
Very-low calorie diet (less than 800 calories per day)
Usually a liquid diet
Must be done under medical supervision
changing the structures of the stomach or intestines by gastric banding or stapling (Roux-en-Y)
sucks adipose tissue from the body but is strictly cosmetic
Complications include blood clots or even death
people with anorexia and bulimia use extreme ways to keep their weight down
eating disorder than involves a drastic reduction in food intake and an unhealthy loss of weight
-Characterizes by weight at least 15% below normal (BMI at or less than 17.5), an intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted idea of body shape
-Starvation may be extreme and can cause death by kidney failure, cardiac arrest, extremely low blood pressure, or cardiac arrhythmia
eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, generally followed by purging (self-induced vomiting, laxative use, or other means) to prevent gaining weight.
A person tends to be depressed and self-critical after an episode
Exercise increases the body's production of what? which reach the brain and decrease stress and sensations of pain
damages children's nervous systems and impairs intelligence if they ingest it
causes lung cancer
used as a fire retardant- causes lung cancer
provides a different type of health service using specialized knowledge and skills.
cannot perform the services of several specialties simultaneously with a high degree of skill.
are the most complex medical facilities in medical care systems, employing highly sophisticated equipment and skilled practitioners from almost all specialty areas
provide care for individuals who need relatively long-term medical and personal care, particularly if the patients or their families cannot provide this care
insurance that covers all elderly people
insurance that covers low-income people
Americans (45 mil people) have no health insurance and the percent uninsured is much higher for Hispanics and Blacks than Whites
people can choose their physicians and the insurance pays most (often 80%) of incurred charges
programs that place restrictions on their members' choices and services. Over 70% of employed Americans are in managed-care plans.
Examples: HMOs and PPOs
Universal health care systems
provide medical coverage for virtually all of their citizens- usually funded by taxes and payroll deductions (Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, U.K.)
Medical student's disease
as medical students learn about the symptoms of various disease, more than 2/3 of them come to believe incorrectly that they have contracted one of these illnesses at one time or another
Mass psychogenic illness
widespread symptom perception across individuals, even though tests indicate that their symptoms have no medical basis in their bodies or in the environment, such as from toxic substances.
health problems that develop as a result of medical treatment.
-This condition can result from a practitioner's error such as giving the wrong type or dose of medication, or as a normal side effect or risk of a treatment, as when people undergo surgery or begin to take a new medication
the time that elapses between when a person first notices a symptom and when he or she enters medical care in emergencies
time to interpret symptoms
Sensory experience of a symptom had the greatest impact on delay
Severe pain or bleeding versus not
time between recognizing you are ill and seeking medical attention
Thoughts about the symptom had the greatest impact
If symptom was new rather than familiar
time between deciding to seek treatment and actually going to use a health service
CAM or Complementary and Alternative Medicine
a method is complementary if used along with conventional treatments and alternative if used in place of them
tend to interpret real but benign bodily sensations as symptoms of illness
Chronic fatigue syndrome
persistent, unexplained severe fatigue for at least 6 months, but other symptoms can include sore throat and headaches
the physician asks questions that require only brief answers- generally "yes" or "no" and focused mainly on the first problem the person mentioned
Tended to ignore attempts by patients to discuss other problems
the physician asks open-ended questions, is less controlling, tended to avoid using medical jargon and allow clients to participate in some of the decision making
In 1751, Hospital opened in Philadelphia as the first institution in the colonies devoted exclusively to treating disease
are mainly in charge of day-to-day business of the institution
Salaried hospital employees who have two functions
Caring for patients
Managing the wards
Allied Health Workers
Physical therapists, respiratory therapists, laboratory technicians, pharmacists' assistants, and dieticians
Have less authority than nurses
an infection that a patient contracts while in the hospital setting
is the most common and pervasive emotion of hospitalized people
taking action can reduce the demands of the stressor or expand the person's resources for dealing with it
people who believe they can do nothing to change a stressor usually try to use emotion-focused coping methods
How a patient adjusts to his or her health problem and treatment in the hospital depends on many factors, such as the person's age, gender, and perceived characteristics of the illness or injury
is the normal reaction of being upset and crying that young children exhibit when they are separated from their parents, particularly in unfamiliar surroundings
Consult with patients' specialists to provide diagnostic and counseling services
Assess client's needs for and provide psychological preparation to cope with surgery and other stressful procedures
Help patients adhere to medication and treatment regimens in the hospital
Personality tests (i.e. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
Scores suggest significant issues for the therapist to explore further
Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic
a self- report test that was developed to assess specific psychosocial factors and decision making issues that are known to be relevant for medical patients
Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale
specifically for use with medical patients
Designed to assess 7 psychosocial characteristics of the client's life, each of which has been associated with adjustment to medical illness
today generally believe children should know as much about their illnesses as they can comprehend and should be told in an open, honest, and sensitive manner
involves a medical and social support system to provide an enriched quality of life through physical, psychosocial, and spiritual care for terminally ill people and their families
describes factors that influence how people adjust during a crisis, such as having an illness
the process of making changes in order to adjust constructively to life's circumstances
Quality of Life
the degree of excellence people appraise their lives to contain
a respiratory disorder involving episodes of impaired breathing when the airways become inflamed and obstructed
The main triggers for asthma
medicines that open constricted airways
inhaled corticosteroids that reduce the sensitivity and inflammation of the airways when a trigger occurs
recurrent, sudden seizures that result from electrical disturbances of the cerebral cortex
Tonic-clonic (grand mal)
two phases of epilepsy that a person goes through.
unexplained sounds, or smell, metallic taste, or other sensation that sometimes occurs prior to the seizure a person experiences.
brief phase in which the person loses consciousness and body is rigid
phase that lasts 2-3 minutes and includes muscle spasms and twitching. The body may relax until the person awakens
Spinal cord injury
neurological damage in the spine that results in the loss of motor control, sensation, and reflexes in associated body areas
results if the cord is completely severed in the neck region- the body is paralyzed from the neck down
results if the lower portion is severed
too much glucose in the blood = diabetes mellitus
Results when abnormal levels of glucose accumulate in the blood because the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin
occurs when high levels of fatty acids in the blood lead to kidney malfunctions, thereby causing wastes to accumulate and poison the body
Type II diabetes
the pancreas produces at least some insulin, and treatment may not require insulin injections
results from chemical reactions that destroy the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers. The person loses sensations in the affected area or have abnormal sensations, such as chronic pain.
includes poor control of insulin levels and can lead to coronary heart disease.
musculoskeletal disorders affecting the body's muscles, joints, and connective tissues near the joints
disease in which the joints degenerate, mainly as a result of wear and tear
produces pain and stiffness mainly in the muscles and other soft tissue
can affect any of the body's joints, but most common in the big toe. Excess acid leaves crystalline deposits at the joints
a disease that involves extreme inflammation of joint tissues and also affects the heart, blood vessels, and lungs when it reaches advanced stages. The most crippling and painful type of arthritis.
progressive loss of cognitive functions that often occurs in old age
The most common form of dementia is a brain disorder characterized by a deterioration of attention, memory, and personality
designed to help people change the way they interact with and perceive their social environments by gaining insights about their feelings and behavior toward other people.
Useful in helping patients deal with their anxieties and changed self-concepts or relationships with family and friends.
typically has the family meet as a group and draws on cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods to examine and change interaction patterns among family members.
Coronary heart disease
illnesses that result from the narrowing and blocking of the coronary arteries.
Blood vessels become narrowed as plaque builds up in the condition called atherosclerosis, increasing the risk of blockage
congestive heart failure
a condition in which the heart's capacity to pump can no longer meet the body's needs and the individuals become short of breath with little exertion.
Hearts become enlarged from being overworked, and lungs often become congested with fluid.
brief reductions of oxygenated blood to the heart that produces painful cramps in the chest, arm, back or neck.
Blood vessels become narrowed as plaque builds up in the condition called increasing the risk of blockage.
uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing, or pain in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes; pain or discomfort spreading to the shoulders, neck, jaw, or arms; shortness of breath; lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, or nausea may occur
the condition of having high blood pressure consistently over an extended period of time- is a major risk factor for heart disease
a tiny balloon is inserted in the blocked artery and inflated to open the blood vessel. A metal mesh stent is placed to keep the vessel open.
shunts around the diseased section of artery with a healthy vessel taken from another part of the person's body
a condition in which damage occurs in an area of the brain when the blood supply to that area is disrupted, depriving it of oxygen
damage results when the blood supply in a cerebral artery is sharply reduced or cut off, such as by a blood clot (a thrombus) or piece of plaque (an embolus); generally occurs slowly and the person is less likely to lose consciousness
a blood vessel ruptures and bleeds into the brain; generally occurs rapidly and causes the person to lose consciousness; most of the damage it produces happens in a few minutes
difficulty in understanding verbal information
difficulty in producing language
is a disease of the cells characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation that usually forms a malignant neoplasm. Classified into 5 types based on the kind of tissue in which it develops
the cancer spreads over time to a vital organ, such as the brain, liver, or lungs; it then competes for and takes most of the nutrients the organ tissues need to survive thereby causing the organ to fail.
the disease weakens the victims and both the disease and the treatment can impair the patient's appetite and ability to fight infection.
in high doses damages the DNA of cells, and malignant cells are much less able than normal cells to repair the damage.
There are two types: external beam therapy and internal radiation therapy.
powerful drugs administered orally or by injection, that circulate through the body to kill cells that divide very rapidly
External beam therapy
directing a beam of intense radiation at the malignant tissue for a period of seconds or minutes (most common)
Internal radiation therapy
injection of radiation