Heredity and Genetics

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Heredity

The passing of genetic material from parent to offspring.

Characteristic

A factor that has different forms in a population ie. hair color

Traits

The different forms that show up in a population ie. red, blonde and black hair

Gene

One set of instructions for an inherited trait.

Allele

One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color.

Homozygous

An organism with 2 dominant or 2 recessive alleles.

Heterozygous

An organism that has one dominant and one recessive allele.

Genotype

The combination of genes for one or more specific traits.

Phenotype

An organisms appearance or other detectable characteristic.

Dominant

Describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes.

Recessive

This describes an allele that is expressed only when no dominant allele is present in an individual.

Incomplete Dominance

A condition in which two alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is an intermediate of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents.

Codominance

A condition in which 2 alleles are expressed such that the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is a combination of the phenotypes of the two homozygous parents.

Punnett Square

A graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross.

Probability

The likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event.

Acquired Trait

A trait that is learned or gained from ones environment.

Pedigree

A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.

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