Science Cells and Heredity

37 terms by Adhitz14 

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Cell

the smallest unit that is able to perform the basic functions of life

Unicellular

organisms with one cell

Multicellular

organisms with two or more cells

Prokaryote

a cell that lacks a nucleus and other organelles, with DNA that isn't organized into chromosomes.

Eukaryote

a cell in which the genetic material is enclosed within a nucleus, surrounded by its own membrane.

Cytoplasm

a thick, gelatin-like material contained within a cell membrane. (most of the work is carried out in the cytoplasm)

Organelle

a structure of a cell that is enclosed by a membrane and that performs a particular function

Nucleus

contains genetic material to reproduce and function

Chloroplast

contains, in plants, chlorophyll

Vacuole

stores supplies in cells

Mitochondria

releases energy by using oxygen to breakdown sugar

Tissue

a group of similar cells that are organized to do specific jobs

Organ

structure in a plant/animal cell made of different tissues collaborating to perform particular functions

Organ system

a group of organs forming an organism

carbohydrate

a type of molecule made of subunits of sugar and is used for energy and structure

protein

a molecule made of amino acids controlling cell activity, growth, and repair.

lipid

a molecule made of fatty acids, used to store energy.

glucose

a major sugar energy source for most cells

starch

an odorless white sugar in carbohydrates

photosynthesis

process by which plants absorb sunlight to produce glucose and energy

cuticle

thin layer at the top made of wax

epidermis

prevent water from entering at top and bottom

palisade mesophyll

upper leaf part where most of photosynthesis occurs

spongy mesophyll

under palisade mesophyll creating airspace for gases to move

stomata

lets gases diffuse in and out of leaf

guard cells

contain chloroplasts and allows guard cells to open and close

xylem

water transport

phloem

transports food from special tissues and veins

cellular respiration

the process by which energy stored in food is turned into usable energy. (C6H1206 + 602 = 6C02 + 6H20 + "usable energy")

Glycolysis

extra storage of glucose

Aerobic Respiration

use of oxygen in mitochondria

Anaerobic Respiration

no use of oxygen by fermentation

Adenosine Triphosphate

ATP. usable energy to cell

Passive Transport

movement of materials through a membrane without energy

Diffusion

a substance moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Osmosis

movement of water through a membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration

Active transport

movement of materials through a membrane with energy

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