Human Geography: Chapter 9

37 terms by sarahvillarreal 

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Chapter 9: The Politics of Territory and Space

bioterrorism

deliberate use of microorganisms or toxins from living organisms to induce death or disease.

centrifugal forces

forces that divide or tend to pull the state apart.

centripetal forces

forces that strengthen and unify the state.

children's rights

the fundamental right of children to life, liberty, education, and health care codified by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989.

citizenship

a category of belonging to a nation-state that includes civil, political, and social rights.

confederation

a group of states united for a common purpose.

decolonization

the acquisition, by colonized peoples, of control over their own territory.

discourse

institutionalized ways of constituting knowledge.

democratic rule

a system in which public policies and officials are directly chosen by popular vote.

domino theory

the theory that if one country in a region chooses or is forced to accept a communist political and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistibly susceptible to communism.

East/West divide

communist and noncommunist countries, respectively.

federal state

form of government in which power is allocated to units of local government within the country.

geopolitics

state's power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations.

gerrymandering

practice of redistricting for partisan purposes.

global civil society

set of institutions, organizations, and behaviors situated between the state, business world, and family including voluntary and non-profit organizations, philanthropic institutions, and social and political movements.

human rights

people's individual rights to justice, freedom, and equality, considered by most societies to belong automatically to all people.

international organization

group that includes two or more states seeking political and/or economic cooperation with each other.

international regime

orientation of contemporary politics around the international arena instead of the national.

intifada

uprising against Israel by the Palestinian people.

nation

group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion or language or a history or political identity.

nation-state

ideal form consisting of a homogeneous group of people governed by their own state.

nationalism

feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs.

new world order

triumph of capitalism over communism, wherein the United States becomes the world's only superpower and therefore its policing force.

North/South divide

differentiation made between the colonizing states of the Northern Hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the Southern Hemisphere.

Orientalism

discourse that positions the West as culturally superior to the East.

reapportionment

process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas.

redistricting

defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries.

regionalism

feeling of collective identity based on a population's politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries.

sectionalism

extreme devotion to local interests and customs.

self-determination

right of a group with a distinctive politico-territorial identity to determine its own destiny, at least in part, through the control of its own territory.

sovereignty

exercise of state power over people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law.

supranational organization

collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature.

territorial organization

system of government formally structured by area, not by social groups.

territory

delimited area over which a state exercises control and which is recognized by other states.

terrorism

threat or use of force to bring about political change.

unitary state

form of government in which power is concentrated in the central government.

Zionism

movement for the establishment of a legally recognized home in Palestine for the Jewish people.

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