a strong and formal condemnation promulgated by official church authority that sometimes carries with it the pain of excommunication
they corrupt some of the dogmas of faith, those who hold to a belief opposed to the established teachings of a church
they completely deny the Faith
Derived from Greek "gnosis" meaning "knowledge" it refers to the heresy that states salvation may be achieved through knowledge, it was a very big threat to Christianity and perverted its symbols and challenged the intent of the faith.
Heresy claiming that Christ has two natures but only one will,
Third and fourth century heresy founded by the Alexandrian priest Arius. It denied Jesus' divinity, claiming that Jesus is neither God nor equal to the Father, but rather an exceptional creature raised to the level of "Son of God" because of his heroic fidelity to the Father's will and his sublime holiness.
Heresy claiming that there is only one nature in Christ and that His human nature is "incorporated" into the Divine Nature.
orthodoxy in doctrine, holiness, notoriety, antiquity
The Church Fathers
St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Gregory of Naziamus
The Council of Nicaea leaders
St. Athanasius and Emperor Constantine
The Two Greatest minds of the Church
St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine
a 5th century A.D. patriarch of Constantinople, who taught that it was inappropriate to call Mary the mother of God (Theotokos) on the grounds that God could not be said to have been born; at best she was only mother of Christ, the man. His views were condemned at the Council of Ephesus in 431, on the grounds that he divided Christ into 2 separate persons.
St. Augustine's greatest works
Confessions and City of God
School of philosophy which held that the logos was a created being, not the Supreme Being. Platonic philosophies, in general, viewed the material world as less perfect than the world of ideas. Thus, besides denying Christ's true divinity, many early Platonic heresies greatly deemphasized Christ's humanity, if not openly denying it.
Denied the existence of a human mind and will in Christ while trying to defend the Church against Arianism
self characterized as Apostle of Christ, originally part of judaizing christian community, Book of Mani's life and teachings was found in small book in Egypt, 216-274
Founder of Manichaeism
known for fighting Arianism
the "Apostle of the Russians and Ukrainians"
Theodosius the Great
Mother of God
The essence of God
appearance or semblance
the whole inhabited world
First , first translation of the Bible from its original languages into Latin by St. Jerome
"Whoever wishes [to be saved]," opening of the Athanasian Creed.
let it be printed
Greek for "reed or measuring rod"
authoritative list of writings included in the Bible; all proclaimed to be divinely inspired
from the Greek word anhomoios, meaning "dissimilar", this sect of Arianism stressed an essential difference between the Father and Son in the Trinity
Old Testament books recognized by the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, but not by Protestants.
a statement of belief of the Apostles based upon the New Testament that was derived from a baptismal creed used especially in Rome known as the Old Roman
Refers to the dual role of head of State and leader of the Church in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. The Church in the East, influenced by the growing power of the patriarch of Constantinople at the hands of the emperor, tended to accept a role for the Church in which it was subservient to the interests of the State.
"golden-mouthed", referring to St. John Chrysostom's extraordinary preaching skills
Gnostic creator god of the material world, inherently evil.
Derived from the Greek word 'dokesis' meaning 'appearance', this Gnostic heresy maintained that Jesus did not die on the cross but was spared by someone else who took his place
Doctor of the Church
Doctores Ecclesiae, a specific title given by the pope to those whose development of theology and personal sanctity are exemplary.
Heresy that rejected the sacraments celebrated by clergy who had formerly betrayed their faith.
Derived from Greek "oikoumene" meaning "the whole inhabited world". Refers to the bringing of Bishops and others entitled to vote from all over the world to discuss central issues of the Church, presided over by the Pope. Issues decrees which, with the approval of the Pope, bind all Christians.
Latin word meaning "and the Son"
It is used to express the double procession of the Holy Spirit from both the Father "and the Son."
Also, a clause added to the Nicene Creed in the Medieval Period.
The refusal to accept one or more truths of the Faith which are required for Catholic belief. It is a species of unbelief belonging to those who profess the Christian faith.
Scriptural purist party rejected the use of the word 'homoousios' (consubstantial) in the Nicene Creed because it was not found in Scripture.
Greek word meaning 'of the same substance' or 'consubstantial'
Free from error. Ecumenical Councils' definitions on Faith and moral are infallible, if that is the intention of the Pope and bishops in union.
An ambiguous Greek word with a multitude of meanings that include: word, account, meaning, reason, argument, saying, speech, story, and many more. The Gospel of John utilizes the word's complex meaning, and used it to refer to Jesus as God, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity
Heresy founded by Mani in 3rd century that involves the relationship of light and darkness, believing through rituals and sharing knowledge people could regain the light stolen by Satan and hidden in the brains of men and freeing it to its original source
Founded by Marcion in the second century, he borrowed the Gnostic idea of a Demiurge, calling this force the jealous and vengeful God of Law. It states that God of Jesus Christ has no law and is sent to bring about the demise of the Demiurge. It renounced all Jewish influence on the Church, believing that the God of the Old Testament was the evil Demiurge.
Founded by Montanus in the second century, he believed that due to an outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon him, he knew that a new, heavenly kingdom was imminent. One of the first apocalyptic heresies, his followers lived a very austere life rejecting second marriages and flight from persecution.
Founded in the 4th century by Nestorius the Patriarch of Constantinople this heresy maintained that Christ was both human and divine but was not himself fully human or fully divine, they believed Christ was a union of two men one human and the other divine.
Heresy denying original sin and the need for grace in man's salvation. According to this heresy, the sacraments are superfluous since salvation and holiness can only be achieved through human endeavor.