ESC1000 Chapter 16 Atmosphere

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Weather

The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place. Also called average weather.

Climate

The sum of all the weather information that helps describe a place or region. Also called long term weather.

Elements of weather

air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind speed.

air temperature

Elements of weather: ______________, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.

humidity

Elements of weather: air temperature, ______________, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.

type and amount of cloudiness

Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, ______________, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.

type and amount of precipitation

Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, ______________, air pressure, speed and direction of wind.

air pressure

Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, ______________, speed and direction of wind.

speed and direction of wind

Elements of weather: air temperature, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, type and amount of precipitation, air pressure, ______________.

Atmosphere

the gaseous portion of any planet.

Air

a mix of many gases and suspended particles.

Composition of air

78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases including carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.

Water vapour

forms clouds which have a strong effect on weather

Aerosols

Fine particles in the air such as smoke, soot, dust, pollen, germs, sea salt.

Ozone

O3. Chemical in the atmosphere that blocks most UV radiation from the sun from hitting the earth.

Barometer

instrument for measuring air pressure.

1000 millibars or 1 bar

average air pressure at sea level.

3.5 miles

height above sea level when air pressure drops to half (500 mb)

Troposphere

bottom layer of the atmosphere.

7.5 miles

thickness of the troposphere

Normal lapse rate

Average drop in temperature as you rise in altitude above sea level through the troposphere. 6.5 degrees Celsius per km.

Environmental lapse rate

Actual drop in temperature per kilometer rise in altitude.

Ozone layer

layer of O3 gas in the stratosphere that protects organisms from UV radiation.

CFC gases

chemical that destroys the Ozone layer.

Amount of daylight received

Cause of the seasons.

23.5 degrees

Tilt of the world's axis.

Summer solstice

longest day and shortest night of the year. Officially starts June 21.

Summer solstice

day when sun rises furthest north of east and sets furthest north of west, in the northern hemisphere.

Winter solstice

shortest day and longest night of the year. Officially starts December 21

Fall equinox

when day equals night. September 22

Spring equinox

when day equals night. March 21

Equinox

when sun rises due east and sets due west.

90 degrees

latitude of the north pole

0 degrees

latitude of the equator

Angle

feature of sunlight when it hits the earth that has a strong effect on temperature

Albedo

reflectivity.

Albedo

feature of land and water that affects how quickly the sun heats them.

Altitude

Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: _______, albedo, air thickness, and angle of the sun.

Albedo

Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: altitude, _______, air thickness, and angle of the sun.

air thickness

Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: altitude, albedo, _______, and angle of the sun.

angle of the sun

Characteristics that affects how much of the sun's energy affects the earth: altitude, albedo, air thickness, and _______.

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