HumNut 210 Midterm

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Which of the following is not a class of nutrient?

Alcohol

Which of the following nutrients can directly supply energy for human use?

Lipids and oils

What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, provide significant health benefits such as reducing the risk of cancer?

Phytochemicals

Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as

carbohydrates

Gram for gram, which provides the most energy?

fats

A kcalorie is a measure of

heat energy

A meal consisting of a cheeseburger, large fries, and a chocolate shake provides a total of 1,120 kcalories, of which 48 percent of the energy is from carbohydrate and 13 percent from protein. How many kcalories of fat does the meal contain?

437

Which of the following contain no calories?

vitamins

Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food?

appetite

Which of the following is not true about water?

provides energy

Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?

A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups

Which of the following accurately describes the term hypotheses?

An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon

Which government agency is responsible for regulating most U.S. food labeling?

Food and Drug Administration

When looking at the ingredient label of a bottled spaghetti sauce, you see that olive oil is the second ingredient. This means that olive oil is

the second most abundant ingredient by weight.

RDAs are not used in food labeling because

they are age and gender specific.

Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products. This part of the examination is the

biochemical evaluation.

Adequate Intakes (AI)

are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs.

You pick up a box of Cheerios cereal in the supermarket. The label tells you that a 1-cup serving provides 25 percent of the ______ for iron.

Daily Value

Nutrient density can be defined as the amount of

a particular nutrient in a serving of food divided by the number of kcalories in that serving.

The acronym DRI stands for

Dietary Reference Intake.

What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?

Epiglottis

The stomach empties into the small intestine through the

pyloric sphincter

These protein-based substances enhance digestion by making chemical reactions more likely to happen.

enzymes

Where are most digestive enzymes produced?

Pancreas and small intestine

Which of the following body organs produces bile?

liver

Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?

portal vein

After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?

lymphatic

A function of the large intestine is to absorb

water and minerals

finger-like projection on surface of small intestine that greatly increase the surface area for digestion

villus

name given to small intestinal cell

enterocyte

1st section of the small intestine

duodenum

circular muscle that controls the flow of food or chyme by preventing it from going backwards

sphincter

the wavelike motion that moves chyme through the GI system

peristalsis

A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

two monosaccharides

The term "simple carbohydrates" refers to

monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Which of the following is a major source of lactose?

skim milk

Major fructose sources include

fruits and high fructose corn syrup

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

mouth with salivary amylase

amylase is

an enzyme that digests starch

Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?

insulin

Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state?

glucagon

glycogen is

a highly branched polysaccharide

Which of the following is an essential fatty acid?

linoleic

Phospholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways?

A compound containing phosphorus replaces at least one fatty acid.

In which form are most dietary lipids found?

triglycerides

the main function of adipose tissue it to

store triglycerides

The major fat-digesting enzyme is

pancreatic lipase.

After chylomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system?

lymphatic

Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?

High-density lipoprotein

To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called

lipoproteins

The main regulator of blood cholesterol levels is

the liver

A desirable total serum cholesterol level is less than ____ milligrams per deciliter.

200

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