transcription and translation of dna to code for specific proteins. mRNA transcribes and then translated the instructions to the ribosome to make proteins.
mRNA is able to leave the nucleus after transcribing the dna
It enters into the cytoplasm and gets itself attached to a ribosome then a transport RNa carries an amino acid attaches its anti codons on the codons of mRNA then another transport RNA bringing with it its particular amino acid gets attached on the codons of mRNA .the tRNA detaches and peptide bond is formed between the two acids to form a dipeptide this process continue until all the codons of mRna are decoded or translated in the form of polypeptide chain of a particular protein.
Proteins are chains of amino acids. The ribosomes in cells produce proteins by chaining amino acids according to the information in the m-RNA.
Codons are groups of three nitrogenous bases on a mRNA strand that match with a specific set of anticodons found on specific tRNA molecules. That tRNA carries a certain amino acid, so when the codons correctly pair up with the anitcodons, the next amino acid is added on to the polypeptide chain by forming a peptide bond, which will ultimately become a protein.
Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA
mrna-messenger; transcribes and sends the instructions to the ribosome to code for proteins
trna- transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
substitution-switches a nucleotide base pair for another
insertion- nucleotide base pair added to a sequence
deletion- nucleotide base pair removed from a dna sequence
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
The smalll, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering.
modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment
a non-coding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
a gene system whose operator gene and three structural genes control lactose metabolism in E. coli
a segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene
A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
transcription enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together
regions of DNA that interact with regulatory proteins that control the transcription operons.
conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
precursor mRNA; the first strand of mRNA produced by gene transcription that contains both introns and exons
a protein that binds to an operator and physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to a promoter site
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals
the specific sites on DNA that restriction enzymes cut