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Income tax

Tax paid to the state, federal, and local governments based on income earned over the past year.

Progressive Tax

a tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes increases as income increases

The New Deal

The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the 1930s by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Medicare

health care for the aged

Medicaid

health care for the needy

Entitlement Programs

Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.

Welfare

something that aids or promotes well-being

Welfare-to-work

the government program aimed at helping poor people become more self-sufficient

Food Stamp Program

federally funded program that gives food coupons to low-income people based on income and family size

Social Security

federal program that provides monthly payments to people who are retired or unable to work

No Child Left Behind

Holds states, schools, and school districts more accountable for their standardized tests scores. The wanted outcome was better tests scores all around and overall a smarter and better population of young people that would positively contribute to a growing America. The schools are funded base on the scores.

School Voucher Programs

the reform initiaitive by conservative groups to allocate tax funds normally given to large school systems, to parents in the form of refunds

GI Bill

Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterans as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.

Pell grants

federal money for low-income-students that you do not have to repay

Federal Reserve System

privately owned, publicly controlled, central bank of the United States

Antitrust legislation

law intended to promote free competition in the market place by outlawing monopolies

Inflation

a general and progressive increase in prices

Budget deficit

when the government spends more money than it collects in taxes

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services.

Clean Air Act

Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants

Global Warming

a rise in average global temperatures

Kyoto Protocol

controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries.

Superfund legislation

regulates the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Tariffs

Taxes on imports or exports

Manifest Destiny

the belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

United Nations

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

an international organization that acts as a lender of last resort, providing loans to troubled nations, and also works to promote trade through financial cooperation

World Bank

a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

Marshall Plan

a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe

Containment

American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

War on Terror

After 9/11, President George W. Bush declared a worldwide "war on terrorism" aimed at defeating international terrorist organizations, destroying terrorist training camps, and bringing terrorists themselves to justice.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Created to allow the free movement of goods between Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. by lessening and eliminating tariffs

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