Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
(1438) King Charles VII of France established French control over the papacy by allowing the King to appoint his own French bishops and to retain ecclesiastical revenues. This caused conflict between the popes and French kings that was unresolved until the Concordat of Bologna in 1516.
Treaty of Arras
(1482) Gave the French kingdom French Burgandy after the Hapsburgs pretended to renounced there right to after repeated attacks from Louis XI of France. However, the French were never really able to take control away from the Hapsburgs.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1492) Agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Concordat of Bologna
(1516) This was the treaty with the papacy and France, where Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council. In return, the French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. This treaty was signed as a way for Francis I to make money. This allowed the French to pick their own priests for the churches, as a last resort to save money.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities called by Pope Paul III that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) It was turning point agreement between Charles V and German Princes to the historic reformation and it ended the German religious warfare. It declared that Lutheranism was a legal, permanent religion along with Catholicism. It also stated that German princes could determine the religion over his subjects.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
(1559) Ended the long conflict known as the Hapsburg-Valois war; Spain was essentially the victor, and France was forced to recognize Spanish control over areas like Italy, etc; this treaty did not end religious conflict however—Catholics and Protestants continued to riot and kill each other.
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) Ended the Thirty Years War; recognized Dutch Indepence, extended terms of the Peace of Augsburg to Calvinists, weakend the authority of the Holy Roman Empire; turning point in European political, religious, social history
Treaty of the Pyrenees
(1659) Treaty that stopped conflicts between Spain and France and had Spain give land to France.The treaty marked to end of Spain as a European power.
Treaty of Nijmegen
(1678) signed by the French, specifically King Louis XIV, and the Dutch. Through this treaty, Louis obtained more land. This treaty is significant because it ended the 6 year long Dutch war, and expanded France.
Peace of Utrect
(1713) War sparked b/t French and Spanish when French placed a royal grandson on Spanish throne. The end of the war ended French predominance and strengthened enemies and rivals of France. French kept the throne, but lost all Spanish possessions which were distributed amongst those that had fought against the French. Also made Savoy and Prussia kingdoms. Took Nova Scotia (from France) and Gibraltar (a trading concession from Spain) and gave them to England
Treaty of Paris (first)
(1763) End of French and Indian war/Seven years war: The Treaty was made possible by the British victory over France and Spain, and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe.
Partition of Poland
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russian, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in Eastern Europe.
Treaty of Paris (second)
US recognized as a free and independent nation by Great Britain.
Concordat of 1801
(1801)Reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and restored some of its civil status. signed by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, who gained for French Catholics the precious right to practice their religion freely, but Napoleon gained political power: his gov't now nominated bishops, paid the clergy, and exerted great influence over the church in France.
Treaty of Luneville
(1801) Austrians signed this with France after been defeated by Napolean at Marengo. It gave almost all of their Italian and German holdings to France. Which would make france more powerful also In 1802 a peace was also signed with the British.
Treaty of Amiens
(1802) Between France and Great Britain (Second Coalition had already ended at the Treaty of Luneville, 1801). This treaty settled peace with GB. For short period then, 1802 to 1803, there was peace - the only period of peace between 1792 and 1814, when no European power was at war with another.
Treaty of Tilsit
(1807) Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces. Napoleon invades Russia in 1812, ending the treaty
Congress of Vienna
Was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November, 1814 to June, 1815. Its objective was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Treaty of Nanking
(1842) Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
Congress of Berlin
(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.
(1882) Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
(1907) A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
(1917) Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all armed forces 2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
(1924) The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
Treaties of Locarno
(1925) eased Euro disputes: Ger and Gr accepted common border, Br and It agreed to fight either Fr or Ger if attacked
Was signed on August 27, 1928 by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and a number of other states. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defence.
(1936) Close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.
(1938) To avoid war, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agreed to allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland as long as he didn't attempt to take anymore land in Europe. French and Italian leaders agreed to this.
Russo-German non-aggression pact
(1939) It was a non-aggression pact under which the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. In addition, Russia seized eastern Poland; they also annexed the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and secured territory from Finland. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
(1941) Act that permitted the US to led or lease arms and other supplies to the Allies, signifying an increasing likelihood of American involvement in WWII.
(1947) President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology; in response to communist crisis in Greece and Turkey
(1947) A set of foreign policies adopted by the United States after World War II. Named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall, the policies provided substantial aid to European countries to help them rebuild their countries, economies and democracies, many of which had been destroyed or severely damaged during the war.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(1949) The United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact.
European Coal and Steel Community
(1951) International organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".
(1955) Treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Treaty of Rome
Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (also known as the Common Market).
European Council for Nuclear Research
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(1963) In wake of Cuban Missile Crisis, all powers except France and China agree to stop testing in atmosphere, space and underwater
(1968) Policy proclaimed declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need.
(1975)Policy of detente reached high point when all European nations, US, and Canada signed this. Agreed Europe's existing political frontiers could not be changed by force. Solemnly accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing human rights ad political freedoms of citizens. Brezhnev's Soviet Union ignored human rights provisions.
(1994) The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, the Netherlands after final negotiations on December 9, 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. It led to the creation of the European Union and was the result of separate negotiations on monetary union and on political union. The Maastricht Treaty has been amended to a degree by later treaties
(1995) Peace agreement ending the war over the former Yugoslavia, b/t Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia; brokered by Clinton