The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure
improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial
Good Faith Exception
An exception to the Supreme Court exclusionary rule, holding that evidence seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant can be introduced at trial if the mistake was made in good faith, that is, if all the parties involved had reason at the time to believe that the warrant was proper.
the constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without the due process of law.
a jury to inquire in accusations of crime and to evaluate the grounds for indictments.
putting someone on trial for a crime of which he or she was previously acquitted.
The act of giving testimony that can be used against oneself, Fifth amendment said you can't self incriminate your self.
statements that must be made by the police informing a suspect of his or her constitutional rights protected by the Fifth Amendment, including the right to an attorney provided by the court if the suspect cannot afford one
Miranda vs Arizona
the supreme court case in which the court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Due Process of Law
All the procedures for fair treatment that must be carried out whenever a citizen is accused of a crime
5th amendment, property is condemned for the public good and the owner is paid a fair price.
Kelo v New London,Connecticut
5 - The government can take property from someone for 'public use'
the constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Speedy and Public Trial
a right contained in the sixth amendment to prevent indefinite pre-trial detention and secret trials
Right to be Informed
being entitled to information about a seller's reputation, product and service performance, quality, and price.
Right to Confrontation
permits the defendant to be present in the courtroom when the victim and other witnesses provide testimony about the defendant's alleged guilt.
Right to Compulsory Process
permits the defendant to use the power of the court to require witnesses to appear at court and to obtain needed documents that might be relevant to the case.
Right to Counsel
Individual right found in the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution that requires criminal defendants to have access to legal representation.
Gideon v Wainwright
The 1963 Supreme Court decision holding that anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer.
The Seventh Amendment
Right to a trial by jury.
group of laws that defines and sets punishments for offenses against society
Body of law dealing with private rights of individuals.
The Eighth Amendment
People accused of a crime are protected from unreasonable bail and fines and from cruel punishments.
The Ninth Amendment
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The Ninth Amendment bars denial of unenumerated rights if the denial is based on the enumeration of certain rights in the Constitution, but does not bar denial of unenumerated rights if the denial is based on the enumeration of certain powers in the Constitution.
rights not listed in the Constitution or constitutional amendments; but either implied or, for some other reason, recognized and protected by the Supreme Court.
Griswold vs Connecticut
A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. Under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
Physician assisted suicide
U.S. Supreme Court rejected Kevorkian's argument that assisted suicide is a constitutional right.
a liberty granted by the Supreme Court to protect adult persons in deciding how to conduct their lives in matters pertaining to sex.
Roe vs Wade
the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right ro privacy, which includes a woman's decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.
Lawrence v Texas
A Texas law classifying consensual, adult homosexual intercourse as illegal sodomy violated the privacy and liberty of adults to engage in private intimate conduct under the 14th amendment.
The process by which provisions of the Bill of Rights are brought within the scope of the Fourteenth Amendment and so applied to state and local governments.
The War on Terror
military campaign led by the US in Afghanistan in response to the 9/11 attacks; phrase first used by President George W. Bush to denote a military, political, legal, and ideological struggle against terrorist organizations.
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equ
Equality of Opportunity
a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential
Equality of Outcome
The concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved
the doctrine established by Plessy v Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
de facto segregation
racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
Civil Rights Movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Dr. Marthin Luther King,Jr.
The minister whose vision and nonviolent methods helped the civil rights movement
Civil Rights Act
(LBJ) 1964 , LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, had to take literacy test
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Civil Rights Amendments
thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth amendments: abolished slavery, redefined civil rights/liberties, black male suffrage
the constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
a status given to individuals that entails specific rights, duties,privileges and benefits between the United States and the individual. Many rights and privileges given this way
Privileges and Immunities Clause
part of Article IV of the Constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states
Due Process Clause
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
the 14th ammendment states that no person should be denied the same protection of law enjoyed by others
Discrimination that is not harmful.
Discrimination against persons or groups that works to their harm and is based on animosity