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The purity of light corresponds to the perception of

saturation

Compared to fixed schedules of reinforcement, you should expect that variable reinforcement schedules will tend to produce

steadier response rates and greater resistance to extinction

Eric has been wearing green welding goggles for the past 30 minutes. Based on the opponent-process theory of color vision, when Eric takes off the green goggles he should expect that objects will temporarily appear to be

red

Jose is wearing a blue shirt, and Evan is wearing a red shirt. In this case, Jose"s shirt is reflecting

shorter light waves than Evan"s shirt

Anne has noticed that for the past three weeks she is unable to sleep for more than five hours at a time, even though she used to regularly get 8 hours of sleep per night. She wakes very early in the morning and just can"t fall back to sleep once this happens. It appears that Anne has developed

insomnia

Children who are just learning to read sound out words one letter at a time. As literate adults, the ability to rapidly process whole words without attending to each individual letter depends most on

top-down processing

Twyla insists she never dreams; she is convinced of this because she has never recalled a single dream. If Twyla were tested in a sleep lab it is likely that she would

experience REM sleep, and she would report a dream if she was awakened from REM sleep

Rebecca is hooked up to an electroencephalograph (EEG) in a sleep lab. As the researcher watches the printout from the EEG, delta waves appear. Based on this information, the researcher can conclude that Rebecca

has just entered Stage 3 sleep

Primary reinforcers __________, while secondary reinforcers __________.-

satisfy biological needs; depend on learning

The idea that dreams are times when people can think creatively about what is going on in their lives and then use that information later when awake is consistent with the

problem-solving view of dreams

Given the cyclical nature of sleep, we can expect to do the MOST dreaming

toward the end of the night"s sleep

Television sets are able to recreate the entire visible spectrum by additively mixing three primary colors. This process is similar to the view of human color vision called

trichromatic theory

If the human eye was not responsive to differences in the amplitude of light waves, we would not be able to perceive differences in

brightness

The primary difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that

punishment decreases responding, while negative reinforcement increases responding

If you look at a book from an angle, you interpret the trapezoidal shape projected on your retina as a rectangular book, in which case you are formulating a

perceptual hypothesis

An electroencephalograph is a device that measures

electrical activity of the brain

After having your picture taken with a yellow flash, you momentarily see blue spots floating before your eyes. This phenomenon is best explained by

opponent process theory

Which of the following is NOT associated with normal REM sleep?

increased skeletal muscle activity

Of the following, which is NOT one of the hypotheses put forward regarding the adaptive value of sleep

Sleep is adaptive because it provides the opportunity to consolidate memories and engage in creative problem-solving.

The lens in the eye

bends entering light rays and focuses them onto the retina

In Pavlov"s original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was

salivation elicited by meat powder

Six-year-old Kristen is afraid of balloons because a balloon once popped in her face while she was holding it. Last week she went to the circus and there was a clown holding a huge assortment of helium balloons. Now she is also afraid of clowns, even though none of the balloons the clown was holding popped. Kristen"s fear of clowns illustrates the classical conditioning process of

higher-order conditioning

In order to create the illusion of three-dimensional reality, a painter must use

pictorial depth cues

Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for each three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a

fixed-ratio schedule

A three-year-old boy observes his father yelling at his mother every time she says something the father doesn"t like. Based on principles of observational learning, in the future whenever the mother says something to the boy that he does not like, the boy is most likely to do which of the following?

yell at his mother

When Skyler was first training his dog, Smooches, to heel he would give Smooches a treat when she stayed close during walks. Now Smooches stays right by Skyler"s side, even when she is not on her leash. In this case,

the dog treats were positive reinforcers for staying close

The primary visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobes

Feature analysis assumes that we progress from individual elements to the whole in the formation of our perceptions. This is a case of

bottom-up processing

The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of-

color

Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on __________, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on __________.

rod cells; cone cells

According to Freud, a sexually frustrated person would probably have highly erotic dreams because, according to him, the principal purpose of a dream is

wish fulfillment

The main point of the ambiguous images (images that can appear to be one thing or another) I showed you in class (Omouse or man? O and O13 or B?O) was to illustrate the effect of __________ on perception.

stimulus context

In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral (NS) becomes the____________during acquisition.

conditioned stimulus

Stimulus generalization occurs when- an organism fails to respond to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus used in conditioning

an organism responds to a new stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus.

'Manny got out of bed and began doing calisthenics during REM sleep, probably because he was dreaming about boot camp.' What is WRONG with this statement?

Research shows that we are virtually paralyzed in REM sleep.

Mary takes a course in which she is tested every two weeks. Her studying falls off right after a test, followed by a gradual increase to a rapid rate of studying as the next test approaches. Her studying conforms to the typical pattern of responding maintained on

fixed interval

In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the

unconditioned stimulus

Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of stimuli are called

feature detectors

The idea that dreams are the cortex"s attempt to make sense out of bursts of general firing from lower brain centers is the core of

activation synthesis theory of dreaming

Some researchers have suggested that our 24-hour sleep/wake cycle may partially be a response to a world where the sun rises and sets on a 24-hour cycle. Imagine that the earth is gradually speeding up, and in 10,000 years the sun rises and sets on a 22-hour cycle instead. If you came to this future world you might expect that people would tend to

follow the shortened cycle set by the sun and fall asleep once every two hours

When Lindsay was nine years old, the neighbor"s chihuahua bit her on the ankle. Today Lindsay is still terrified of chihuahuas, but she likes almost all other types of dogs. Lindsay"s fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of

stimulus discrimination

A perceptual set implies that

people often see what they expect to see

Nicolas has autistic disorder and he was mute. A therapist working with Nicolas initially gave him a piece of chocolate any time he made a sound with his lips. This slowly changed until Nicolas only received a piece of chocolate for saying complete words, and eventually only for saying complete sentences. In this example, Nicolas developed speech skills through the use of

shaping

The idea that hypnosis is associated with divided consciousness and is an altered state is MOST consistent with which of the following theories of hypnosis?

hilgard's dissociation theory

A major beer producer has developed a series of television commercials that show its product OSudsieO being enjoyed by attractive people at a beach party. The company hopes that pairing the beer with these images will condition good feelings about their product. This particular beer maker is attempting to use

classical conditioning

Mateen has been selectively deprived of slow-wave (Delta) sleep for five nights. You would expect that on the sixth night, when he is allowed to sleep undisturbed, he will show

increased delta sleep

The role-playing theory of hypnosis offered by Barber and Spanos suggests that the hypnotized subject

is in a normal state but acts out the role as a hypnotized person

Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

stopping nagging a child when he finally cleans his room

When Diana was three years old, she became terrified when the neighbor"s budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pigeons, and blue jays. Diana"s fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of

stimulus generalization

Your younger daughter watches your older daughter wash the breakfast dishes. Later, your younger daughter attempts to wash some dishes. According to principles of observational learning, the older daughter has acted as

model

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