Biology Ch 25-26 (EXAM 1)

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____ are groups that share a common ancestor
A. Species
B. Outgroups
C. Polytomies
D. Sister taxa
E. Genera

D. Sister taxa

The Archaean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic are ____
A. eras
B. periods
C. eons
D. epochs

C. eons

In cladistics, the only clades considered to be valid are_____
A. monophyletic
B. polyphyletic
C. paraphyletic
D. Two of these are correct
E. All three are correct

A. monophyletic

____ is the study of the evolutionary history of a species or groups of related species
A. taxonomy
B. phylogenetics
C. systematics
D. biology

B. phylogenetics

The legless condition that is observed in several groups of extant reptiles is the result of?
A) their common anscestor having been legless
B) a shared adaptation to an arboreal ( living in trees) lifestyle.
C)several instance of the legless condition arising independently of each other
D) individual lizards adapting to a fossorial ( living in burrows) lifestyle during their lifetimes

C)several instance of the legless condition arising independently of each other

Which of the following pairs are the best examples of homologous structures?
A. owl wing and hornet wing
B. eyelessness in the Australian mole and eyelessness in the North American mole
C. bat wing and bird wing
D. bones in the bat wing and bones in the human forelimb

D. bones in the bat wing and bones in the human forelimb

In comparison of birds with mammals, having four limbs is _____
A. a character useful for sorting bird species
B. a character useful for distinguishing birds from mammals
C. a shared ancestral character
D. a shared derived character

C. a shared ancestral character

Plants, fungi, and animals began to colonize land around ____ million years ago
A. 500
B. 250
C. 65
D. 535-525
E. 750-580

A. 500

The existence of evolutionary trends, such as increasing body sizes among horse species is evidence that ____
A. evolution always tends toward increased complexity or increased size
B. a larger volume-to-surface-area ratio is beneficial to all mammals
C. in particular environments, similar adaptations can be beneficial in more than one species
D. evolution generally progresses toward some predetermined goal
E. an unseen guiding force is at work

C. in particular environments, similar adaptations can be beneficial in more than one species

The currecnt system of classification identifies ___ domain(s) of organisms
A. four
B. three
C. one
D. five
E. two

B. three

___ are short RNA molecues that can remove introns from themselves or other RNA
A. Ribonucleotides
B. Chimeras
C. Ribozymes
D. Liposomes
E. Stromatolites

C. Ribozymes

Which factor most likely causes animals and plants in India to differ greatly from species in nearby southeast Asia?
A. India is in the process of separating from the rest of Asia
B. Life in India was wiped out by ancient volcanic eruptions
C. India was a separate continent until 45 million years ago
D. The climates of the two regions are similar
E. The species have become separated by convergent evolution

C. India was a separate continent until 45 million years ago

The major evolutionary episode corresponding most closely in time with the formation of Pangea was the _______
A. Cambrian explosion
B. Pleistocene ice ages
C. Permian extinctions
D. Cretaceous extinctions

C. Permian extinctions

A genetic change that caused a certain Hox gene to be expressed along the tip of a vertebrate limb instead of further back helped make possible the evolution of the tetrapod limb. This type of change is illustrative of___
A. gene duplication
B. paedomorphosis
C. the influence of environment on development
D. heterochrony
E. a change in a developmental gene or its regulation that altered the spatial organization of body parts

E. a change in a developmental gene or its regulation that altered the spatial organization of body parts

If you were using cladistics to build a phylogenetic tree of cats, which of the following would be the best outgroup?
A. Lion
B. Domestic cat
C. wolf
D. leopard
E. tiger

C. wolf

The most important feature that permits a gene to act as a molecular clock is _____
A. having a reliable average rate of mutation
B. its being acted upon by natural selection
C. having a large number of base pairs
D. its recent origin by a gene-duplication event
E. having a larger proportion of coding DNA than of non-coding DNA

A. having a reliable average rate of mutation

What would be the correct way to write the binomial for humans?
A. Home sapiens (no italics)
B. Homo sapiens (both italic)
C. Homo Sapiens (both italic)
D. homo sapiens (both italic)
E. Homo Sapiens (no italics)

B. Homo sapiens (both italic)

Which of these observations gives the most support to the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotic life?
A. the observation that some eukaryotic cells lack mitochondria
B. the similarity in size between the cystolic ribosomes of prokaryotes and the ribosomes within mitochondria and plastids
C. the existence of structural and molecular differences between the plasma membranes of prokaryotes and the internal membranes of mitochondria and plastids
D. the size disparity between most prokaryotic cells and most eukaryotic cells

B. the similarity in size between the cystolic ribosomes of prokaryotes and the ribosomes within mitochondria and plastids

19. To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree, _____.
A. choose the tree in which the branch points are based on as many shared derived characters as possible
B. base phylogenetic trees only on the fossil record, as this provides the simplest explanation for evolution
C. choose the tree with the fewest branch points
D. choose the tree that assumes all evolutionary changes are equally probable
E. choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or morphology

E. choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or morphology

Who was the first to use a hierarchical system to classify species?
A. Miller and Urey
B. Oparin and Haldane
C. Linnaeus
D. Pasteur

C. Linnaeus

Which kindgdom has been replaced with two domains?
A. Monera
B. Fungi
C. Animalia
D. Protista
E. Plantae

A. Monera

A swim bladder is a gas-filled sac that helps fish maintain buoyancy. The evolution of the swim bladder from lungs of an ancestral fish is an example of _______.
A. changes in Hox gene expression
B. paedomorphosis
C. an evolutionary trend
D. adaptive radiation
E. exaptation

E. exaptation

The oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells date back to _____ years ago.
A. 750-580 million
B. 2.1 billion
C. 3.5 billion
D. 1.5-1.2 billion
E. 535-525 million

B. 2.1 billion

Most molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the racoon family (Procyonidae). Consequently, the morphological similarities of these two species are probably due to ______.
A. possession of shared primitive characters
B. possession of analogous structures
C. sexual selection
D. inheritance of acquired characteristics
E. inheritance of shared derived characters

B. possession of analogous structures

Which of the following statements provides the strongest evidence that prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes?
A. Prokaryotic cells lack nuclei
B. Laboratory experiments have produced liposomes abiotically.
C. Liposomes closely resemble prokaryotic cells.
D. The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.
E. The meteorites that have struck Earth contain fossils of only prokaryotes.

D. The oldest fossilized cells resemble prokaryotes.

Who conducted experiments that finally disproved the concept of spontaneous generation?
A. Miller and Urey
B. Linnaeus
C. Pasteur
D. Oparin and Haldane

C. Pasteur

Which event is nearest in time to the end of the period known as "snowball Earth"?
A. Cambrian explosion
B. evolution of mitochondria
C. Permian extinction
D. oxygenation of Earth's seas and atmosphere
E. evolution of true multicellularity

A. Cambrian explosion

If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to be most closely related?
A. D and F
B. B and D
C. A and B
D. C and F
E. A and C

A. D and F

If two continents converge and are united, then the collision should cause _____.
A. a decrease in climatic extremes in the interior of the new supercontinent
B. a net loss of intertidal zone and coastal habitat
C. the maintenance of the previously existing ocean currents and wind patterns
D. the extinction of any species adapted to intertidal and coastal habitat
E. an overall decrease in the surface area located in the continental interior

B. a net loss of intertidal zone and coastal habitat

An early consequence of the release of oxygen gas by plant and bacterial photosynthesis was to ______.
A. prevent the formation of an ozone layer
B. cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust (oxidize)
C. change the atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing
D. make it easier to maintain reduced molecules
E. generate intense lightning storms

B. cause iron in ocean water and terrestrial rocks to rust (oxidize)

Bat wings and bird wings are homologous as forelimbs, but analogous as functional wings. T/F

True

A specific epithet can be used more than once within a genus. T/F

False

Research suggests that one group of prokaryotes (the archaea) are more closely related to the eukaryotes than either group is related to the second group of prokaryotes (the bacteria). T/F

True

The fossil record includes every species that has ever live on the Earth. T/F

False

The early Earth's atmosphere has much less molecular oxygen (O2) than the current atmosphere. T/F

True

The first genetic material was most likely DNA, with RNA appearing later. T/F

False

The principle of maximum likelihood assumes that the phylogenetic tree that requires the fewest evolutionary events is the most likely. T/F

False

The current hypothesis for the origin of the eukaryotic cells states that the plastids arose before mitochondria. T/F

False

______ hypothesized that the early Earth's atmosphere was reducing and thus conducive to the formation of complex organic molecules.

Oparin and Haldane

______ are aggregates of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane or membrane-like structure.

protobionts

The oldest known fossils are ______, rock-like structures composed

stromatolites

A taxonomic unit at any level of the hierarchy is called a(n) ________.

taxom

____ is similarity due to convergent evolution (independent development of a trait)

analogy

_____ states that much of the evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection.

neutral theory

What three factors lead some scientists to believe that life originated near deep-sea hydrothermal vents?

1. have energy sources that can be used by modern prokaryotes
2. produce some organic compounds
3. have inorganic iron and nickel sulfides that can catalyze some organic reactions

The first appearance of free oxygen in the atmosphere likely triggered a massive wave of extinctions among the prokaryotes of the time. Why?

Free oxygen attacks chemical bonds and can inhibit enzymes and damage cells.

To distinguish a particular clade of mammals within a larger clade that corresponds to the Class Mammalia, would hair be a useful character? Why or why not?

No, hair is a shared ancestral character common to all mammals and thus is not helpful in distinguishing mammalian subgroups.

List three factors that promote adaptive radiations.

1. Mass extinctions
2. Major evolutionary innovations
3. Migration to new locations where few competitor species exist

There are four steps in the hypothesized origin of life. List them in their correct order (first to last).

1. Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules
2. Abiotic joining of these small molecules into macromolecules
3. Packaging of molecules into "protobionts"
4. Origin of self-replicating molecules

Place the following events in their correct order (oldest to most recent) AND give the approximate date for each:
-origin of the prokaryotic cell
-colonization of land by macroscopic life forms
- first eukaryotic cell
- "snowball Earth"
- "oxygen revolution"

1. origin of the prokaryotic cell 2.3 BYA
2. "oxygen revolution" 2.2 BYA
3. first eukaryotic cell 2.1 BYA
4. "snowball Earth" 750 MYA
5. colonization of land by macroscopic life forms 535 MYA

List the levels in the hierarchical classification scheme in the correct order, starting with the smallest

Species
Genus
Family
Order
Class
Phylum
Kingdom
Domain

Define monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic. Illustrate your definitions by drawing a diagram for each - be sure to indicate which diagram corresponds to which definition.

monophyletic: a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants.
paraphyletic: a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all of its descendants.
polyphyletic: a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors.

monophyletic

a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants.

paraphyletic

a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all of its descendants.

polyphyletic

a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors.

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