the effects a policy has on people and problems; are analyzed to see how well a policy has met its goal and at what cost
an issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and a public policy choice
a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
gross domestic product
sum total of the value of all the goods an services produced in a nation
institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society
channels or access points through which issues and people's policy preferences get on the government's policy agenda; the three main ones are elections, political parties, and interest groups
a choice that government makes in response to political issue; a course of action taken with regard to some problem
a principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument
elite and class theory
a theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization
a condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy; result is nothing may get done
a theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies
a theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened; an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism
a basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers
a fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory
Goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone must share
the upper class in a society that utilizes wealth for political power
According to John Kingdon, "the list of subjects or problems to which government officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time."
The belief that individuals should be left on their own by the government. One of the primary reasons for the comparatively small scope of American government is the prominence of this belief in American political thought and practice.
groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
the branches of government charged with taking action on political issues; Congress, the presidency, and the courts
All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue; most common is voting