AP European History Quotes and excerpts

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Machiavelli

" A prince should have only one end and one idea in mind, take only one subject for study, and it is war, its science and discipline; for it is the only science that deals with the ruler's problems. ...[Success in war] not only maintains those born to princedoms but often causes men of private origin to rise to that rank. ...The first cause of losing power is the neglect of this art; the cause of winning power lies in its mastery."

Machiavelli

"A prince should have only one end and one idea in mind, take only one subject for study, and it is war, its science and discipline; for it is the only science that deals with the ruler's problems...[Success in war] not only maintains those born to princedoms but often causes men of private origin to rise to that rank...The first cause of losing power is the neglect of this art; the cause of winning power lies in its mastery."

Louise Labe

"All I can do is beg our virtuous ladies to raise their minds somewhat above their distaff and spindles and try to prove to the world that if we were not made to command, still we should not be disdained as companions in domestic and public matters by those who govern and command obedience."

Enlightenened Despot

"Sincerely influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, this monarch abolished capital punishment, established equality before the law, freed the serfs, created a system of primary education, established religious toleration, and tightened the control of the state over the established church."

Rene Descarte

"His enthusiasm for scientific method, his belief that everything could be reduced to mathematical terms, and his insistence on systematic doubt of all earlier theories left a profound mark on the thinking of scientists in the next two centuries."

Erich Maria Remarque (All Quiet on the Western Front)

"We see men living with their skulls blown open; we see soldiers run with their two feet cut off, they stagger on their splintered stumps into the next shell-hole; a lance corporal crawls a mile and a half on his hands dragging his smashed knee after him; another goes to the dressing station and over his clasped hands bulge his intestines; we see men without jaws, without faces; we find one man who has held the artery of his arm in his teeth for two hours in order not to bleed to death. The sun goes down, night comes, the shells whine, life is at an end"

Anonimous

"As historians from Karl Marx through Georges Lefebvre and Albert Soboul have argued, the main accomplishment of the French Revolution was to abolish feudalism in France and to clear the ground for capitalist economic expansion and the rule of the bourgeoisie."

John Stuart Mill

The worth of a State, in the long run, is the worth of the individuals composing it: and a State which dwarfs its men, in order that they may be more docile instruments... , will find that with small men no great thing can be accomplished.

Erasmus of Rotterdam

"You venerate the saints and delight in touching their relics, but you despise the best one they left behind, the example of a holy life. ...If the worship of Christ in the person of His saints pleases you so much, see to it that you imitate Christ in the saints."

Spanish and Portuguese expansion in the New World

"Religion supplies the pretext and gold the motive."

John Calvin

"In conformity, therefore, to the clear doctrine of the Scripture, we assert, that by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction."

Francesco Petrarch

"Oh inglorious age! that scorns antiquity, its mother, to whom it owes every noble art -that dares to declare itself not only equal but superior to the glorious past."

Machiavelli

"...It is, then, much safer to be feared than to be loved ...for touching human nature, we may say in general that men are untruthful, unconstant, dissemblers, they avoid dangers
and are covetous of gain. While you do them good, they are wholly yours... but when (danger) approaches, they revolt."

Martin Luther

'They preach that the soul flies out of Purgatory as soon as the money thrown in the chest rattles. I believe when the money rattles in the chest, avarice and gain may be increased,
but the effect of the intercession of the Church depends on the will of God alone."

Calvin refering to Predestination

"The covenant of life is not preached equally to all, and among those to whom it is preached, does not always meet with the same reception. This diversity displays the unsearchable depths of the divine judgement, and is without doubt subordinate to God's purpose of eternal election. It is plainly owing to the mere pleasure of God that salvation is spontaneously offered to some, while others have no access to it.

Calvinism

"The church is not subordinate to the state, but rather must be ruled according to God's plan. The chosen few should not only govern the church but also the state." An adherent of what religious group is likely to have believed this in the 16th century?

Martin Luther referring to the peasants' revolt

"With threefold horrible sins against God and men have these peasants loaded themselves, for which they have deserved a manifold death of body and souls. They have deliberately
and sacrilegiously abandoned their obedience, and in addition have dared to oppose their lords."

Capitalism

"Poverty, considered a virtue by the Catholic Church, became shameful to the Calvinists. The middle class found in Calvinism a justification for the pursuit of wealth."

Roman Catholicism

"If anyone saith that in the sacred and holy sacrament of the Eucharist, the substance of the bread and wine remains conjointly with the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ
and denieth that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the Body, and the whole substance of the wine into the Blood — let him be anathema."

the Society of Jesus

"Like an army, it was ruled by a general who was responsible directly to the pope. Its holy soldiers practiced blind obedience, maintained absolute faith, and willingly suffered extreme hardship."

Christopher Columbus

"Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians and Princes who love the Holy Christian faith, and the propogation of it, and who are enemies to the sect of Mohammed and to all idolitries and heresies, resolved to send me to India to see the rulers there, and the cities and lands, and their disposition, with a view that they might be converted to our holy faith; and ordered that I should not go by land to the eastward, as had been customary, but that I should go by way of the west, whither up to this day we do not know for certain that anyone has gone."

Hanseatic League

"It was an important confederation of commercial towns in northern Germany with its own laws, diplomats, and flags. Its membership of merchants earned large profits shipping fish, timber, and other resources to areas to the west and to the south. Prosperity declined, however, when trade routes shifted from the Baltic to the Atlantic after 1500."

disagrees with the persecution of witches

"Before she is tortured, however, she is led aside by the executioner, and lest she may by magical means have fortified herself against the pain, she is searched, her whole body
being shaved, although in no previous case has anything of this sort been found, Then she is tortured with the torture of the first degree. Whatever she says, afterwards she is executed without scruple."

Henry IV of France

"Paris is well worth a Mass"

Louis XIV

"l'etat, c'est moi"

Louis XIV

"He showed a disinclination for Paris. The troubles that had taken place there during his minority made him regard the place as dangerous; he wished, too, to render himself venerable by hiding from the eyes of the multitude."

James I, speech in Parliament

"The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth: for kings are not only Gods Lieutenants upon earth and sit upon Gods throne, but even by God himself they are called gods, and so their power after a certain relation compared to Divine power. Kings are also compared to fathers of families: for a king is truly the father of his country."

King Charles I to show that if the king was unsafe, all people would be

"How can any free-born subject of England call life or anything he possesseth his own, if power without legitimacy daily make new and abrogate the old fundamental laws of the land?
Sirs, it is for this principle, that I am come here to die. I tell you that I am the martyr of the people."

in a nation of separate states, the army was a unifying force

"a state built around an army,"

Moscow

"third Rome"

Peter the Great of Russia

"He was, indeed, resolved to encourage learning and to polish his people by sending some of them to travel in other countries and to draw strangers to come and live among them. He was mechanically turned, and seemed designed by nature rather to be a ship carpenter than a great prince. This was his chief study and exercise while he stayed in England."

John Donne (1573-1631) refer to the scientific work of Copernicus

"And New Philosophy calls all in doubt,
The element of Fire is quite put out;
The Sun is lost, and th'Earth, and no man's wit
Can well direct him where to look for it."

Idea widely accepted by scientists in the 17th Century

''The first rule of science is never to receive anything as a truth which you do not clearly know to be such; avoid haste and prejudices."

Francis Bacon

'There are and can be only two ways of searching into and discovering truth. The one flies from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms, and from these principles
proceeds to judgement and to the discovery of the truth. This way is now in fashion. The other derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual and unbroken
ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axioms last of all. This is the true way, but as yet rarely tried."

René Descartes

"His enthusiasm for scientific method, his belief that everything could be reduced to mathematical terms, and his insistence on systematic doubt of all earlier theories left a profound mark on the thinking of scientists in the next two centuries."

René Descartes

"Man, being the servant and interpreter of Nature, can do and understand so much . . . as he has observed . . . . Beyond this he neither knows anything nor can do anything."

René Descartes

"Cogito ergo sum", I think therefore I am

Isaac Newton

"I stood on the shoulders of giants"

Classical liberalism

"Each individual, bestowing more time and attention upon the means of preserving and increasing his portion of wealth than is or can be bestowed by government, is likely to take a more effectual course than what, in this instance and on his behalf, would be taken by government."

John Locke

"Men being by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of another without his own consent, which is done by agreeing with other men , to join and unite into a community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living in a secure enjoyment of their properties."

John Locke

"Revolutions happen not upon every little mismanagement in public affairs. Great mistakes by the ruler, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slips of human frailty will be bourne by the people without any mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses and prevarication and artifaces, all tending the same way, make the design of tyranny visible to the people, it is not to be wondered that they should then rouse themselves and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected."

Thomas Hobbes

"Hereby it is manifest, that during the time men live without a common power to keep all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, as of every man; and the life of man: solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."

demography

"'The power of population is infinitely greater that the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man. Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometric ratio. Subsistence only increases in an arithmetic ratio. A slight acquaintance with numbers will show the immensity of the first power in comparison with the second. This implies a strong and constantly operating check on population from the difficulty of subsistence."

Enclosure of common lands

"The pasturing stock is allowed in peace to eat up the food on the pastures to its utmost limits, thus the stock returns more ample profit to the farmer. In managing arable lands, the farmer derives other solid advantages, such as security against trespass and adoption of correct crop rotation."

mercantilist

"We may diminish our importations, if we would soberly refrain from excessive consumption of foreign wares in our diet and payment. The value of our exports likewise may be much advanced when we perform it ourselves in our own ships. For then we get not only the price of our wares as they are worth here, but also the merchant's gains, the charges of insurance, and freight to carry them beyond the seas."

Paris during the Enlightenment

"The salon was a weekly gathering held in the home of one of the dominant ladies of the society, at which dinner was usually served, cards usually played, but conversation led by the hostess predominated. A few salons were known as having the ideal mixture of leading intellectuals, open-minded nobles, and clever, elegant women."

Mary Wollstonecraft

"I will allow that bodily strength seems to give man a natural superiority over woman; and this is the only solid basis on which the superiority of men over women can be built."

Mary Wollstonecraft

"Tyrants of every denomination, from the weak: king to the weak: father of a family are all eager to crush reason. Do you not act in a similar part when you force all women, by denying them civil and political rights, to remain immured in their families groping in the dark? They may be convenient slaves, but slavery will have its constant effect, degrading the master and the abject dependent."

Voltaire

"When popes and priests define their dogmas and discipline their followers, corruption is the rule and abuse is the result. 'Crush the infamous thing!' The simple beauty of Christ's
message has been lost in ignorance and encrusted with superstition."

Montesquieu

"Laws should be relative to the climate of each country, to the quality of its soil, to its situation and extent, to the principal occupation of its natives. Laws should have a relation to the degree of liberty which the constitution will bear, to the religion of the inhabitants, to their manner and customs. Furthermore, when the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty."

Cesare Beccaria

"The punishment of death is pernicious to society from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or the necessity of war, have taught men to shed the blood of their fellow creatures, the laws, which are intended to moderate the ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by examples of barbarity, the more horrible as this punishment is usually attended with formal pageantry"

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

"The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have a right to concur either personally or by their representatives in its formation. The law should be the same for all, whether it protects or whether it punishes."

a physiocrat

"All the different regulations of the mercantile system necessarily derange more or less the natural and most advantageous distribution of trade."

economic competition as a regulator of commerce

"invisible hand"

Joseph II of Austria

"Sincerely influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, this monarch abolished capital punishment, established equality before the law, freed the serfs, created a system of primary education, established religious toleration, and tightened the control of the state over the established church."

Capitalism

"Self-interest drive people to action and the Invisible Hand of competition acts as an automatic regulator so that the market will generate wealth for the nation."

Abbe Sieyes's

What Is the Third Estate?

Tennis Court Oath

"The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of public order, and to maintain the true
principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are
assembled, there is the National Assembly; "Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom
is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature."

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

"Men are born and remain free and equal in rights."

laissez faire

"Generally speaking, there is no one who knows what is for your interest so well as yourself - no one who is disposed with so much ardor and constancy to pursue it."

Ricardo's iron law of wages

"The power of the laborer to support himself does not depend on the quantity of money he receives for wages, but on the quantity of food, necessaries, and conveniences essential
to him from habit, which that money will purchase. The natural price of labor, therefore, depends on the price of food, necessaries, and conveniences required for the support of
the laborer and his family."

Thomas Malthus

"Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio. Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio. A slight acquaintance with numbers will show the immensity of the first power in comparison to the second . . . . This implies a strong and constantly operating check on population from the difficulty of subsistence."

Malthus' belief in the inevitability of working-class poverty

"The power of population is infinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man. Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometric ratio. Subsistence only increases in the arithmetic ratio. A slight acquaintance with the
numbers will show the immensity of the first power in comparison with the second."

Free trade in early nineteenth-century Great Britain

"No prudent master of a family ever attempts to make at home what it will cost him more to make than to buy. If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it from them with some part of the produce of our own industry."

factory owner

"The young workers seemed to be always cheerful and alert taking pleasure in the light play of their muscles - enjoying the mobility natural to their age. The scene of industry, so far from exciting sad emotions in my mind, was always exhilarating. It was delightful to observe the nimbleness with which they fixed the broken ends. The work of these lively elves in the factory seemed to resemble sport."

a Romantic

"The Age of Reason diminished the human spirit by denying the emotionality that flows from the soul. Miracles are acts of God, not illusions for the senses. Mystery is at the core of existence. The tiller of the soil is purer at heart than the factory laborer, and science will never uncover the ultimate meaning of life."

Romanticism

"These writers extolled, often in an exaggerated form, the expression of human emotion and the search for realization of one's own identity"

Giuseppe Mazzini rejects unity at the cost of monarchy

"Young Italy is republican. It is Republican because theoretically every nation is destined, by the law of God and humanity, to form a free and equal community of brothers; and the republic is the only form of government that insures this future."

Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia in response to a request made by
the Frankfurt Parliament

"I will not pick up the crown out of the gutter,"

your region, your religion

Cuius regio, eius religio

Emile Zola

"I accuse the war office of having led a vile campaign in the press in order to misdirect public opinion and cover up its sins." "I accuse the first court-martial of having violated all human rights in condemning a prisoner on testimony kept secret from him."

Treaty of Versailles, 1919

"The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage ... as a consequence of the war."

Marx and Engels

"The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles."

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