how we explain someone's behavior—by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate impact of situation and to overestimate impact of dispositional factors
feelings often based on our beliefs, which predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
cognitive dissonance theory
theory that we act to reduce discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent or thoughts and behavior. Example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the discomfort by changing our attitudes
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. we change our opinion based on info we get from others or experts
normative social influence
type of social influence resulting from person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval- we change our behavior to that of group to fit in
tendency to perform better on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when working toward a common goal than when individually accountable.
loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within group - opinions become stronger after discussion in groups
occurs when desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action.
generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
"us"—people with whom one shares a common identity.
tendency to favor one's own group.
"them"—those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
tendency of people to believe world is fair and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
principle that blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
mere exposure effect
phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases the liking of them
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them and that we will like those that like us back.
expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
rules within a group indicating how members should or should not behave
tendency to attribute successes to help from others or ease of task and accept personal responsibility for their failures. more common in collective cultures
tendency often in individualistic cultures to attribute our own successes to dispositional factors and our own failures to situational factors
Norms that define what behaviors are typically approved or disapproved.
Norms that individuals believe others actually are doing. People adjust their behavior to match the rest of the group.
robber cave experiment - Sherif
study at a summer camp - 2 groups were pitted against one another. They grew to despise other group. Groups were then intermixed groups. When presented with goals in which they had to work together the new groups then worked together.
situational or internal attribution
belief that an individual's behavior is based on events in the environment rather than long-lasting personality characteristics.
dispositional or external attribution
belief that one's behavior is due to long-lasting personality traits rather than the current environment.
Weiner's attribution model
stability of a given action (stable/unstable) often leads to explaining it in terms of an internal or external attribution.
Process in which initial impression of someone or ourselves leads that person or ourselves to behave in accordance with that impression.
also called blaming the victim - blaming victim for their misfortune so one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way
Natural (unconscious) tendency to imitate other peoples speech, inflections & physical movements
Doing things that contribute to you failing (knowingly or unknowingly) and then using these very things as excuses for failing.
assumption that others pay more attention to our behavior & appearance than they actually do
tendency to attribute behavior of others to dispositional factors and our own behavior to situational ones in a comparison
individuals that change behavior to match group and gain approval - respond best to peripheral routes of persuasion
individuals whose behavior stays the same regardless of who they are with and what is happening - respond best to central routes of persuasion
central route to persuasion
persuasion method that focuses on individuals who have to make a decision take time and effort necessary to gather all info & and make well determined choice.
peripheral route to persuasion
persuasion method that focuses on individuals that need to make a decision take into account random and inconsequential factors in order to arrive at a decision. usually, topic is of little importance to them
tendency for an individual who denies an outrageous request to agree to a lesser one.
term for how we think beautiful people are more vivacious, socially skilled, intelligent, & well adjusted
we seek individuals most like ourselves (attractive wise).
attraction causes similarity as couples who stay together move closer together in beliefs
we expect partner to fit ideals about loyalty, status, attractiveness, humor, etc. and the closer they match these the more attractive they are
Sternberg's Love Theory
combinations of passion, intimacy, and committment result if various types of love
idea that prejudice can be reduced by increasing contact with those that are different
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
social interference / impairment
lowering of performance on a given task in the presence of others - usually a task that is not well rehearsed
changing behavior or beliefs to match other members of group.
adjusting behavior because of a request.
Tendency to respond to others as they have acted towards you
"fake subjects" that look & behave like real subjects in study.
researcher famous for line study of conformity
researcher famous for teacher-learner study on obedience to authority
experimenter famous for $1 or $20 experiment on cognitive dissonance
experimentor famous for research on how roles influence behavior and the power of the situation in a mock prison
negative state relief model
Helping others aids in eliminating negative moods and unpleasant feelings.
Unselfish behavior can occur as a result of empathy with another person.
People who share a common resource tend to overuse it and therefore make it unavailable in the long run.
situation in which an individual must choose between a cooperative act and an act that will help them but hurt others.
cultural perspective which places the individual, independence and autonomy over the group.
cultural perspective which places interdependence, cooperation and social harmony take precedence over personal goals.
cognitive structures that guides information processing.
organized cluster of ideas about categories of social events and people.
Getting someone to commit to an attractive option before revealing the hidden costs.
tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
schema of beliefs & views about ourselves
upward social comparison
comparing yourself with people who do much better than you; can sometimes inspire us to do better and sometimes lower self esteem
downward social comparison
comparing yourself with those who are not as good as yourself although our performance or lives are not ideal... it could be worse
formed by using schema to interpret NEW info, these are quickly formed, hard to change, and long-lasting (because we are cognitive misers, are overconfident in our judgments, etc.)
factors that contribute to attraction
attractiveness, similarity, proximity, reciprocity
a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people's differences from one another.
three components of Sternberg's love theory
passion, intimacy, committment
factors that influence persuasiveness of messenger
credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, likability, attractiveness
factors that increase conformity
ambiguity, minority influence, unanimity and size of majority, attraction to group
Stanford Prison Experiment
people were assigned to be guards and prisoners- people had to play their role, and there was no rules, and people by the end of the first day WERE their role
you comply after someone requests that do directly - when someone asks you directly for something.
you comply after requests that you do indirectly - when someone "looks at you" in way to cue your behavior
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
high self monitors
more concerned about making favorable impressions and are good at interpreting what others see - more easily influenced by the peripheral route to persuasion