Proclamation of 1763
forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Second Continental Congress
-drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence
-met in Philadelphia in 1776
Treaty of Paris (1783)
-ended the Revolutionary War
-recognized independence of the American colonies, granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
War of 1812
war against Britain, American victory increased nationalism and economic independence
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
U.S. purchased Florida from Spain
Sherman Antitrust Act
federal law passed in 1890 that outlawed the combinations of companies into monopolies, thus restraining trade
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional
wrote "The Jungle", which exposed the horrors of food production in the United States
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Supreme Court ruled that a state could not prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy
English nobility who received large land grants in easter Virginia from the King
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
-western Virginian settlers were angry at VA governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements
-fronteirsmen formed an army, with Nathaniel Bacon as leader, defeated the Indians, marched on Jamestown and burned the city, ended suddenly when Bacon died of illness
Southern staple crops
Tobacco-VA, MD, NC
received a land grant from King Charles II, used it to form a colony that would provide a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers, Pennsylvannia, allowed religious freedom
formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews
formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution
-economic policy of Europe from 1500s-1700s
-gov't exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods
French and Indian War (1756-1763)
-part of 7 yrs war in Europe
-Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisiana
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for
ceding Florida to the British.
a series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. The British needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies
a representative is not elected by his constituents, but resembles them in political beliefs and goals (colonies only had virtual representation in the British government)
required that all legal/official documents used in the colonies had to be written on special stamped British paper, so unpopular that it started riots and most of the stamped paper sent was burned by angry mobs
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
27 delegates from 9 colonies met and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies
First Continental Congress
13 colonies sent representatives, first time the colonies acted together
Sons of Liberty
radical political organization for colonial independence, formed in 1765 after Stamp Act
-helped organize Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townsend Acts
-believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party
-serve in Continental Congress throughout Revolution
-governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797)
-argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups
-helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence
Committees of Correspondence
-started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764.
Other colonies created their own committees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations.
-particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts
All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
French Alliance of 1778
France was Britain's rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
Battle of Yorktown
ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War, Cornwallis surrendered on October 17th, 1777
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
-outlawed an established church and called for separation of church and state
-written by Thomas Jefferson in 1779
Articles of Confederation
-delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual STATES but left the federal goverment power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money
-WEAK becuase federal gov't had little power, couldn't keep country united, abandoned for Constitution
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
-only major success of Articles of Confederation
-set up the framework of a gov't for the Northwest territory
-provided that the territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery, and set 60,000 as the min. population for statehood
-occurred in the winter of 1786-1787
-poor indebted Massachusetts landowners blocked access to courts and prevented the gov't from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. federal gov't was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, sign that Articles weren't effective
based each state's representation in Congress on state population
New Jersey Plan
gave each state the same number of representatives in Congress
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted VA plan, smaller states wanted NJ plan, compromise created House and Senate, using both of the plans as the method for electing members of each
supporters of the Constitution, leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison
mostly wealthy, opposed anarchy
written by James Madison in support of the Constitution
opponents of the Constitution, included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams
mostly commoners, afraid of strong central gov't and being taken advantage of
Virginia Declaration of Rights
-basic human rights should not be violated by governments
-written by George Mason
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Washington's Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances
believed in strong central gov't, strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution
believed in weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction from Federalist to Democratic-Republican
first time power changed hands peacefully
Clay's American System
Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
believed in less aristrocratic presidency, wanted to reduce federal spending and gov't interference in everyday life, believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution (He was a Democratic-Republican, orginially an Antifederalist)
causes of the War of 1812
-British impressment of sailors
-British seizure of neutral American trading ships
-reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest ports, Florida, and possibly Canada)
Purchase under Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819, Spain sold it to the U.S. and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas
Marbury v. Madison
established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review
allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconsitutional
admitted Missouri as a slave state, Main as a free state, declared all territory north fo the 36:30 latitude would become free states, all territory south of that would become slave states
National Road (or Cumberland Road)
first highway built by federal gov't
-constructed during 1825-1850, stretched from Pennsylvannia to Illinois
-major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West
opened as a toll waterway connecting NY to Great Lakes, approved in 1817, also helped connect North and West
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
Jackson's election was the revolution of the "common man"
Tariff of Abominations
North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, South depended on cheap imports and only wanted tariffs for revenue. Sourth strongly opposed protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protest by asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.
an anti-foreign feeling that arose in 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics
Fletcher v. Peck
1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person's property rights. Since the land grant was a legal
contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.
54'40 or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54¦40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49' latitude in 1846.
James K. Polk
president known for promoting Manifest Destiny
Causes of the Mexican War
annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840's and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande.
The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott
Results of the Mexican War
U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago)
1853 - After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsden, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
designed and built America's first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures, can lead to conflict
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.
Compromise of 1850
called for admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico without restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division
Fugitive Slave Law
enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which irritated the South a lot. The 1850 law was tougher and aimed at eliminating the underground railroad
1854 - This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
the doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide whether a territory allowed slavery
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War.
turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern gov't
He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over
his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate
removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It
furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Civil Rights Act
1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
freed all slaves, abolished slavery
It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
Compromise of 1877
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudelent election results. He took Union troops out of the South
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
the owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal gov't
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product, such as an auto maker that also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.
Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Knights of Labor
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers.
American Federation of Labor
Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked for five months, then gave in to peace demands.
American Railway Union
-Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike
-composed mostly of railroad workers.
the second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; between 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived primarily from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing from persecution and poverty
founded by Jane Addams in 1889, first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assisit the poor, combat juvenille deliquency, and help immigrants learn English
1862-set aside public land to be used for building colleges
name for the late 1800s, described the increase inw ealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1886 - Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to refuse to ride in the train car reserved for blacks. The NAACP hoped to force a court decision on segregation. However, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks
Dawes Sevaralty Act
Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian proverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba
The U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
Open Door Notes
Secretary of State John Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
people have the right to propose a new law
a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto
the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office.
These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
authorized Congress to levy an income tax.
gave the power to elect senators to the people.
prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
gave women the right to vote.
Meat INspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Taft and Knox came up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Sacco and Vanzetti case
Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
causes of the Great Depression
Much debt, stock prices spiralling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S.
1930-Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA)
-Chief measure to promote recovery
-set up the National Recovery Adminstration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry
-Based on theory that regulation of the economy would allow industries to return to full production, thereby leading to full employment and a return of prosperity.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
offered contracts to farmers to reduce their output of designated products. It paid farmers for processing taxes on these products, and made loans to farmers who stored crops on their farms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
created in April 1933-men between ages 18 and 25 worked for hte reconstruction of cities
Home Owners's Local Corporation (HOLC)
Had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent foreclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
1934-created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in securities trading
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
a public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration projects for farmers, and engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area
FDR's administration was based on this concept. It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions of dollars of federal money into the economy even if the government didn't have the funds, and had to borrown money
Social Security Act
one of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by wages paid equally by employee and employer
1935-upon the outbreak of war, all American exports would be embargoed for 6 months
1936-gave the president the authority to determine when a state of war existed and prohibited loans to beligerents
1937-gave the president to determine whether a civil war was a threat and prohibited arms sales to beligerents
fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943, wanted to recreate the Roman Empire
Japan invades China
Japanese seize Manchuria from China in 1931
On Sept. 29, 1938 Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the ____ ____, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.
August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland to Germany, but allowed Russia
to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers
were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled
the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
March 1941 - Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment ot any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and
ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerents
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Eastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War
1947-Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threated by Communism
presented when a U.S. delegation met with Spain in Belgium, declared America's ambitions to acquire Cuba. The manifesto strongly suggested that the United States would take Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell. It was vigorously denounced as a plot to extend slavery and the offer was withdrawn. It was a political fiasco for President Franklin Pierce.
Homestead Plant Strike
several displaced workers opened fire on a barge loaded with 300 Pinkerton agents who were brought in to break the strike. A battle raged for several hours, and, in the end, three Pinkerton agents and seven strikers were killed.
-was a total defeat for the workers and for unionism as a whole.
War Powers Act (1973)
-passed after the U.S. pulled out of Vietnam.
-sought to severely limit the president's power in dealing with an armed crisis.
-required the president to notify congress within 48 hours of taking any military action in a foreign country.
-required the president to withdraw troops in any armed conflict within 60 days of their deployment unless otherwise approved by congress.
"Exposition and Protest"
document secretly written by Vice President John Calhoun in support of nullification; calling on compact theory, he argued the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that South Carolina could lawfully refuse to collect it.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work "A History of Standard Oil".