MSJC A&P- Chapter 25 Study Guide

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This is a stack that goes in accordance with the answers given for the test.

The enzyme that acts on the stomach.

lingual lipase

The enzyme that does not digest any nutrients.

enterokinase

True or False. Bile is an enzyme.

false

Which fat soluble vitamins are absorbed and unchanged?

ADEK

A soupy mixture of half-digested food.

chyme

The principal pigment of bile.

bilirubin

Secretin is not an enzyme but is a ____________.

hormone

Lacteals absorb_____________.

chylomicrons

True or False. Haustra contributes to the absorption surface area of the small intestine.

false

Periodontal tissue.

gingiva

Anatomically, the________of the stomach most closely resemble the_________of the small intestine.

gastric pits, intestinal crypts

Cells that secrete digestive enzymes.

chief cells

Which phase of gastric regulation includes inhibition by the enterogastric reflex?

intestinal phase

True or False. Saliva contains protein digestive enzymes.

false

True or False. The esophagus is lined with stratified squamous keratinized epithelium.

false

True or False. Bile is broken down into fatty acids by lipase.

false

True or False.The sphincter of oddi regulates the flow of bile and pancreatic secretions into the intestine.

True (both a and b are true)

What two enzymes digest protein?

pepsin, trypsin

What enzymes digest protein, fats, and sugar?

pepsin, lipase, and sucrase

This brush border enzyme will complete polypeptide digestion.

aminopeptidase

LES-->pyloric sphincter-->duodenum-->ileocecal valve-->rectum is the pathway of the__________ _________.

digestive tract

Pepsinogen, when activated, turns into__________and is found in the____________.

pepsin, stomach

___________converts pepsinogen into pepsin, and is found in the ___________.

HCL, stomach

True or False. The stomach has elastic folds called villi.

false

Folds in the gastric mucosa of the stomach are called____________.

rugae

Amylose-->dextrins-->maltose-->_______________.

glucose

A thick ring of smooth muscle that regulates the passage of chyme into the duodenum.

pyloric sphincter

What prevents stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus, thus protecting the esophageal mucosa from the erosive effect of stomach acid?

LES

What helps to retain food in the mouth until one is ready to swallow. (also known as the tip of the soft palate)

uvula

The flap that keeps liquid and food from entering the lungs or windpipe.

epiglottis

True or False. The large intestine has plicae circularis or circular folds.

false

True or False. The liver secretes bicarbonate into bile.

false

Projections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption and digestion.

villi

Cusps are a feature of the _______________surfaces of the molars and premolars.

occlusal

The acidity of the stomach halts the action of__________but promotes the action of __________, both of which are salivary enzymes.

amylase, lipase

The___________salivary gland is named for its proximity to the ear.

parotid

The submucosal and myenteric plexuses collectively constitute the__________nervous system.

enteric

Nervous stimulation of gastrointestinal activity is mediated mainly through the parasympathetic fibers of the _________nerves.

vagus

Food in the stomach causes G cells to secrete__________, which in turn stimulates the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen.

gastrin

Hepatic macrophages occur in blood-filled spaces of the liver called_____________.

sinusoids

The brush border enzyme that finishes the job of starch digestion, producing glucose, is called__________. Its substrate is ___________.

maltase, maltose

Fats are taken into the lymphatic capillaries as droplets called__________________.

chylomicrons

Gastric _____________ secrete pepsinogen and rennin in the stomach.

chief cells

This hormone stimulates chief cells and parietal cells to secrete pepsinogen and HCl and is secreted by enteroendocrine cells.

gastrin

This brush border enzyme will complete polypeptide digestion.

carboxypeptidase

Holds tooth in place.

periodontal ligament

The hard, calcified connective tissue that most of the tooth consists of.

dentin

Regions of a tooth are defined by their relationship to the___________(gum).

gingiva

The selective intake of food.

ingestion

True or False. Excretion is a stage of the digestive system.

false

The elimination of feces.

defecation

The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body.

digestion

The uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood or lymph.

absorption

Steroids synthesized from cholesterol.

bile salts

___________is autocatalytic and converts the zymogens trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidase. Its primary role is to digest dietary protein.

trypsin

Trypsin converts the zymogen chymotrypsinogen into____________.

chymotrypsin

Pancreatic__________digests starch.

amylase

Digests dietary proteins to shorter peptide chains. Hydrochloric acid removes some of its amino acids to convert them into this enzyme.

pepsin

These cells activate pepsin and lingual lipase which help liquify food and reduce dietary iron to its usable form. They also secrete hydrocholoric acid and destroy ingested pathogens.

parietal cells

Gastrin is a hormone produced by enteroendocrine __________in the pyloric glands.

G cells

Cells that secrete mucus and protect the mucosa from HCl and enzymes.

mucous cells

Radiating sheets of cuboidal cells that are found surrounding the central veins of the liver. Responsible for absorption, degradation, and secretion.

hepatocytes

_________is formed in the beta cells of the pancreas, promotes the storage of glucose and the uptake of amino acids, and increases protein and lipid synthesis.

insulin

Secretin, ___________and the enterogastric reflex inhibit gastric secretion and motility while the duodenum processes the chyme already in it.

CCK

Chyme stimulates duodenal enteroendocrine cells to release______________and cholecystokinin (CCK).

secretin

The largest folds of the intestinal wall are transverse spiral ridges called________ _________ which cause the chyme to flow on a spiral path. (involve only mucosa and submucosa)

plicae circularis

The numerous depressions in the mucous membrane lining the stomach into which the gastric glands discharge their secretions.

gastric pit

The __________ __________ protrudes into the cecum and regulates the passage of food residue into the large intestine.

ileocecal sphincter

The principal circulating sugar in the blood and the major energy source of the body. (stored as glycogen)(monosaccharide). It is absorbed into the small intestine by symports (SGLT) and also leaks through tight junctions.

glucose

A disaccharide in milk that hydrolyzes to yield glucose and galactose.

lactose

A monosaccharide commonly occurring in lactose. Absorbed into the small intestine through symports (SGLT).

galactose

A simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in honey, many fruits, and some vegetables. It is absorbed into the small intestine by facilitated diffusion.

fructose

Proteases and peptidases split proteins into their monomers, the__________________.

amino acids

The amphiphilic nature of _________ allows them to form structures such as vesicles, liposomes, or membranes in the body. (digested by lipases)

lipids

_____________ions are absorbed by simple diffusion. Chyme is abundant in this mineral.

potassium

_____________ions are cotransported with sugars and amino acids.

sodium

The muscle tone of the taeniae coli contracts the colon lengthwise and causes its wall to bulge, forming pouches called____________. (absent on anus and rectum)

haustra

Cuplike fatty pouches of peritoneum of unknown function found on the serosa of the transverse and sigmoid colon.

epiploic appendages

A movement in which stationary ringlike constrictions appear at several places along the intestine and then relax as new constrictions form elsewhere.

segmentation

_______________droplets are acted upon by pancreatic lipase, which hydrolyzes the first and third fatty acids from triglycerides.

emulsification

A wave of muscular contraction that pushes the bolus ahead of it.

peristalsis

If the duodenum becomes overfilled, it inhibits_________________and postpones receiving more chyme.

gastric motility

Strong_________ _________ contractions occur one to three times a day, last about fifteen minutes and are often triggered by the gastrocolic and duodenocolic reflexes.

mass action

Chylomicrons are released from the basal cell membrane by _____________ and enter the lacteal of the villus.

exocytosis

Water is absorbed into the body through the small and large intestine by___________.

osmosis

_____________is required to move glucose from low to high concentration.

active transport

Diffusion of sodium ions with glucose uses___________.

cotransport

The absorptive cells of infants can take up intact proteins by_________________and release them to the blood by exocytosis.

pinocytosis

E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus, and H.pylori are all found in the__________ body but not in large enough quantities to cause harm.

human

Most fat digestion occurs in the small intestine through the action of ___________ _____________.

pancreatic lipase

Intestinal cells absorb lipids from micelles, resynthesize trigylcerides, and package triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids into protein-coated _______________.

chylomicrons

Connective tissue filled with blood vessels, lymph and nerves.

pulp

The scientific word for chewing.

mastication

The __________is the__________of the large intestine.

mesocolon, mesentery

_____________ travel through the __________ to join lymph from other parts of the body, and enter the blood circulation via the thoracic duct.

chylomicrons, lacteals

The bile reaches the __________ through the common bile duct where ___________ of fat can emulsify.

duodenum, globules

When fat globules reach the duodenum, it triggers a hormone called__________________that tells the gallbladder that bile is needed.

cholecystokinin (CCK)

Oligopeptides and _________________buffer stomach acid.

amino acids

Gastric glands are the only glands that have ________cells.

chief

The__________orifice is where the esophagus meets the stomach.

cardiac

Most ulcers involve the acid-resistant bacterium,______________, that invades the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum.

H. pylori

Pancreatic____________is an enzyme that digests starch.

amylase

____________ is first digested in the mouth where salivary amylase hydrolyzes it into oligosaccharides.

starch

Vitamin B12 can only be absorbed if it binds to________________from the stomach.

intrinsic factors

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