What is the levels of biological organization from simplest to complex?
Atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organism, population, kingdom.
What is a Producer?
A organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules. I.E: Photosynthesis.
What is a Decomposer?
An organism that recycles nutrients by the neutral process of decomposition. I.E: Fungi.
What is a Consumer?
An organism that consumes other consumers, and producers to thrive. Cannot make their own nutrients. I.E: Lion.
What is Energy?
The capacity to do work, or the capacity for work.
In the world of life does energy flow in one direction, two directions or is it cyclical?
Energy flows in every direction from everything.
Are nutrients recycled?
Yes, they are recycled.
What type of organism is responsible for this recycling of nutrients?
Cells or decomposers.
What would happen if there were no decomposers in the world?
The world the waste would be not manageable, and life would either not exist, or not be as it is today.
What type of organisms are found in Animalia Kingdom?
Mammals. I.E: Lions.
What type of organisms are found in Protists Kingdom?
What type of organisms are found in Bacterial Kingdom?
What type of Organisms are found in Plantae Kingdom?
Plants. I.E: Ferns.
What type of Organisms are found in Fungi kingdom?
Which kingdoms of organisms are Prokaryotic?
What kingdoms of organisms are Eukaryotic?
Animalia, Protists, Plantae and Fungi.
What is a Hypothesis?
An educated guess.
What is a Scientific Theory?
A well tested hypothesis that hasn't been disproven.
What is a Control Group?
A group that is used for standard comparisson in a scientific test.
What subatomic particle is positive and located in the nucleus?
What subatomic particle is neutral and located in the nucleus?
What subatomic particle is negative and located outside of the nucleus?
What is a Molecule?
Consisting of two or more atoms.
What is an Atomic Number?
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
What is a Compound?
Molecules consisting of two or more elements whose proportions do not vary.
What is a Mass Number?
Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
What is a Mixture?
Two or more substances that intermingle, do not bond, proportions of each can vary.
What is an Atom?
Particles that are building blocks of all matter, can differ in number of protons, electrons, and neutrons.
What is an Electrical Charge of an Atom?
The electrical charge of an atom is due to the number of electrons in an atom.
What is an Ion?
An atom with a positive, or negative charge due to loss or gain of electrons in its outer shell.
What is a Orbital Shell?
Volume of space electrons move in, in an atom.
How many electrons can occupy the first shell of an Valence Shell?
How many electrons can occupy the third shell of a Valence Shell?
What is an Ionic Bond?
A strong mututal attraction between two oppositely charged ions with a large difference in electro negativity. Strong bond, formed of crystals.
What is a Covalent Bond?
Two atoms with similar electro negativity and unpaired electrons sharing a pair of electrons. Can be stronger than Ionic. Can share multiple pairs of electrons.
What is a Polar Covalent Bond?
Atoms with different electro negativity do not share electrons equally, one atom has a more negative charge and the other atom has a more positive charge.
What is a Non-Polar Covalent Bond?
Atoms sharing electrons equally, formed between atoms with identical electro negativity.
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
A weak attraction between a highly electro negative atom and a hydrogen atom taking part in a separate polar covalent bond. They do not form molecules and are not chemical bonds. They stabalize the structure of large biological molecules.
What property does an Electro Negative Atom have?
The ability to pull electrons from one atom to another.
What are the four major elements that occur in all forms of life?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen.
How does a Hydrophobic substance interact in water?
Will repel water, do not mix, and do not dissolve in water.
How does a Hydrophillic substance interact in water?
Likes water, will mix and dissolve in water.
What does pH measure?
Measures the hydrogen ions in a solution.
Is pH 7 considered to be neutral?
Yes. I.E: Pure Water.
Is pH 3 acidic or basic?
Acids are below pH7, therefore pH 3 is Acidic.
Is pH11 acidic or basic?
Bases are above pH7, therefore pH11 is a base.
Is an Acid a producer of H+?
Yes, acids donate Hydrogen Ions.
Is a Base an acceptor of H+?
Yes, bases accept Hydrogen Ions.
What is a Buffer System?
A set of chemicals (a weak acid o base and its salt) that can keep the pH of a solution stable.
Organic molecules are primarily composed of what two elements?
Carbon and Hydrogen.
What are functional groups and what do they provide to organic molecules?
A cluster of atoms that imparts specific properties to a molecule.
What are the functional groups?
Hydroxyl, Methyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amine, Phosphate, Sulfhydryl.
What are the common Disaccharides?
Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose.
What are four common Polysaccharides?
Cellulose, Starch, Chitin, and Glycogen.
What is the function of a Triglyceride?
Energy, Insulation, and Cushioning.
What is the function of a Phospholipid?
Building blocks of cell membrane.
What is the function of Sterol?
Regulate cellular activity.
What is the function of Wax?
Protective, water repellent.
Proteins and polymers are composed of what type of monomers?
What are the functions of proteins in a living organism?
Structural, nutritious, enzyme, transport, communication, and defense proteins.
Does the exact order of amino acids determine the function of a protein?
What happens when the order of amino acids is changed?
The function changes.
What are the parts of a nucleotide?
Sugar with a five carbon ring, a nitrogen containing base, and one or more phosphate group.
What bases are found in DNA?
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine.
What bases are found in RNA?
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Uracil.
Nucleotides are the monomers used to form nucleic acid. What other functions do nucleotides have?
Play roles in metabolism.
What is the one major difference between a prokaryotic cell and an eukaryotic cell?
One has no nucleus, and one does.
Are all living organisms composed of cells?
What is the name of the instrument used to see cells?