The King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
Battle of Hastings
The decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror
The Duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
The son of Pippin the Younger, and the grandson of Charles Martel. He was important because he pushed Christianity southward, and he conquered the last two Germanic tribes.
A document that was signed in Runnymede, and this was meant to protect the rights of nobles, and it focused on rights of the feudal system. It was 63 chapters, and the Pope canceled it after ten weeks. King John signed it.
The ruler of one of the small Frankish kingdoms from the year of 481 to 511. He was able to unite the Frank into one kingdom which goes to the Pyranees.
Surprise attacks from long, swift ships which sought riches and adventure and they had no mercy in battles.
The economic and social system based on the manors. A large manor could be 5,000 acres, and 500 families on it.
The epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe.
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.
A piece of land divided into many sections, but the main parcel was for the king. It usually consisted of a castle, manor house, trees, fields, pasture land, barns, stables, a windmill, a church, serf huts, bridges, and a name.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
A group of people with similar interest and were often due to the profession of people; merchant and craft.
A member of a Viking people who raided and then settled in the French province later known as Normandy. They invaded England in 1066
In which a weak monarchy attempts to control the lands of the realm through reciprocal agreements with regional leaders.
The intellectual method designed by scholars using dialect. It reached the height in The Works of Thomas Aquinas. This made faith a human error.
An official who supervises the cultivation of the lord's demesne, collects money, and inspects work done by others.
Pope Innocent III
A person who ruled from 1198 to 1216 where a new type of administrative power emerged and papal power reached its height. He applied the interdict 85 times.
In the Middle Ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty.
He was the powerful king of Norway who wanted to invade England and rule over it as well as Norway. He landed on north east coast of England in 1066 and died in the Stamford Bridge Battle.
They were the people who were bound to the manor, and couldn't leave without the lord's consent. They were born into this.
The place where monks and nuns made copies of the Bible by hand.
Started with Charles Martel and was established by him and then went to Pippin his son who made it the rightful rulers of central Europe.
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
He became King of England in 1066 after death of Edward the Confessor, ruled for brief time until defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings. He is one of three kings to have died in battle along with Richard the Lionheart and Richard III.
A handwritten book decorated with bright colors and precious metals.
He founded a monastery in Northern Italy in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions gonverning the lives of monks that was used by monasteries across Europe.
The system in which cultivatable land would be split into three sections, with one being fallow land to prevent over-farming.
A tapestry where the story of the Battle of Hasting and the Norman conquest is recorded. It is a piece of linen where
the story is embroidered on.
Founded by St. Francis and order stressed vows of poverty and gentleness to all creatures
The person who wrote Canterbury Tales, which was the first book in the vernacular.
A code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle.
Chivalrously expressed secret love between members of nobility; inspired romantic literature.
The Hundred Years' War
A war between France and England for the French throne that continued from 1337 to 1453, and introduced the use of new weapons.
The foreman of the villagers who was chosen by them to represent them and their interests.
Joan of Arc
A French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king.
A group of Germanic tribes. They became allies of the Romans and became Christian. In the 8th century they established the Carolingian rule. Perhaps the most famous leader was Charlemagne.
The crime of holding a belief that goes against established doctrine.
Contests where knights could show their fighting skills.
The year William the Conqueror became the first Norman king of England after defeating the English at the Battle of Hastings. This laid the foundation for centralized government.
European-Christian attempt to take control of the "Holy Lands" and convert people to Christianity.
Richard the Lionhearted
An English king who lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin.
The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade and captured Jerusalem in 1187.
Pope Gregory I
The pope who assumed the position of protecting Rome, and it's surrounding territories. He negotiated a peace treaty with a Germanic tribe who tried to invade Rome.
Founded by St. Dominic of Guzman; vows of poverty; stressed missionary work; preached gospel and fought heresy.
A severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)
A local church with it's own priest, and the people under the religious care of the priest. Boniface organized them.
Treaty of Verdun
This is when the three sons of Louis the Pious met at Verdun to split up the lands of Charlemagne's empire. It weakened the empire significantly.
A nomadic group of Muslims from Sysria and Arabia during the Crusades.
The government in Britain.
An official who was the general overseer who supervised the business of his lord's manor and presided over the manorial court.
People who were not stuck on the manor for life. They often lived on the manor, but did not make up much of the population. They performed part of the grunt work.