Practical Exam Exercise 36

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Anatomy of Respiratory System

What is the function of the Epiglottis Cartilage

To close the glottis while swallowing

Which cartilage in the larynx has a complete ring

Cricoid

Which cartilage forms the Adams Apple

Thyroid

Name two functions of the nasal mucosa

Warm the ear
Moisten the ear
Trap particles
Smelling

Trace a molecule of Oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs

External nares
nasal cavity
internal nares
nasopharynx
oropharynx
larynx
trachea
primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronchi
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar duct
alveolar sac
alveoli
respiratory membrane
capillaries

Define pulmonary ventilation

• Mechanical flow of air into (inhalation) and out of (exhalation) of the lungs due to chest and lung volume changes which cause pressure changes.
• The flow of gases equalizes the pressure.
• The constant alteration between inspiration

Define external respiration

• Exchange of gases between the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
• The blood gains O2 and loses CO2

5. The rings of the trachea are incomplete posteriorly, what is the significance of that?

• To allow the esophagus to expand while swallowing

9. Define internal respiration

• Exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells
• The blood loses O2 and gains CO2.

10. Define cellular respiration

• Using oxygen in the cellular processes to produce ATP

11. Define dead space.

• NO gas exchange between the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries

12. Why oxygen moves from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries?

• High concentration or pressure in the lung to low concentration or pressure in the capillaries

13. The upper respiratory system structures are.

• Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx

14. The lower respiratory system structures are

• larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli

15. List the paranasal sinuses and their functions.

• Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary
• Frontal, maxillary, and anterior and middle ethmoid drain into middle meatus
• Sphenoid and posterior ethmoid drain into superior meatus
• Make the skull lighter
• Produce mucus that moisten and clean the air
• Resonating chambers for sound

16. The hard palate separates the

Nasal __ cavity from the ____Oral ___ cavity.

17. What is the function of the soft palate?

• To close the internal nareses and stop the food from entering the nasal cavity

19. The Pharynx is commonly called

• The throat

20. Which primary bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical; the left or the right?

• The right.

21. What type of epithelium you will find in the trachea.

• Pseudostratified

22. What is the function of the cilia in the trachea?

• To move the mucus towards the oral cavity

23. The left primary bronchus divides into how many secondary bronchi?

• Two secondary bronchi.

24. The right primary bronchus divides into how many secondary

• Three secondary bronchi.

25. List the three parts of the respiratory zone.

• Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sac, alveoli

26. The conducting zone includes

• Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

27. List two functions of respiratory system

• Gas exchange
• Acid base balance

28. Which tonsil located in the Nasopharynx

• One Pharyngeal or adenoid

29. Nasopharynx lies posterior to what

• Nasal cavity

30. What is the function of the Nasopharynx

• Passageway for air

31. The Oropharynx lies posterior to what

• Oral cavity

32. What is the function of Oropharynx?

• Passageway for air and food

33. Name the tonsils located in the Oropharynx

• Two Palatine tonsils

34. The vocal cords are attached posterolaterlly to which cartilage

• Arytenoids

35. Name the two layers that enclose the lungs

• Parietal and visceral layers

36. What are the layers of the respiratory membrane

• Alveolar epithelium
• Epithelial basement membrane underlying alveolar wall
• Capillary basement membrane that is often fused to the epithelial basement membrane
• Endothelial cells of the capillary

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