What was the original locus of Brazilian culture?
Northeast Brazil and sugar production
What was unique about the Brazilian Empire?
1822-1888. Unique in the Western Hemisphere. Had a hierarchical nobility based on wealth. Centralized system, not federal
What is cerrado?
Scrub vegetation system. Arguments over the origin of this system. Cerrado- covers ⅕ of Brazil, esp central Brazil. Non-tropical grassland. Interior. Not used for economic purpose until recently. Now it's a breadbasket.
What is unique about Rio Grande do Sul?
It is the only part of Brazil that is not in the tropics. 9/10 of Brazil is in the tropics. It also the end of the Brazilian shield of topography.
What is important about terra roxa soils?
fertile, associated with where coffee will grow and not grow
What are the planaltos?
Plateaus. Brazil is a series of plateaus
What is important about the Sertao?
North east interior- Sertao- semi arid. Home to concentration of poverty. Less rainfall than anywhere else, evaporates fast. Can't grow a lot. Interior of Northeast Brazil. Semi arid. Historically, difficult to make a living here. Largest concentration of poverty in Western hemisphere. Used to be subsistence. Just enough.
Where is the only zone of Brazil with significant grasslands?
Grasslands sometimes, not a lot of economic significant except in the South where it is the only place that could support it and have ranching.
What are the 4 criteria for tropical culture?
4 criteria for tropical culture- cultivation of crops, canoes, hammocks, pottery. Located near water.
What are captaincies?
how Portuguese organized the land. Mimicked the Spanish land system
What is miscegenation?
In the absence of family development, gender skewed migration, mostly male. Men mixed with indigenous, then slave trade from Africa. Mulatto phenomenon. Portuguese were prepared to mix with other cultures, as opposed to in North America.
What are banderaintes?
controversial group. Pathfinders who found gold mines. Can be seen as thugs. Enslaved indigenous peoples. Pushed back frontiers of Brazil
What was Brazil's first commodity?
1st commodity- Brazil wood to tint fabrics red
What are sesmarias?
Sesmarias- representative of the crown, royal land grants. End in 1822, after captaincies. royal land grants. Roots of wealth in Brazil. Thousands of acres. Cultivated land.
What are quilombos?
slaves that negotiate for their freedom, or people trying not to get enslaved
What did Skidmore note about Brazil?
Brazil was a state, before a society. Had organization and format, but society isn't developed, turned hierarchical with a narrow elite. Reliance on servitude.
What are the three broad physical regions of North East Brazil?
Zona Da Mata, Sertao, Agreste
What is the Zona Da Mata?
Zona Da Mata (zone of forest) - humid, luxuriant forest that was cleared for farming. No poor soil or drought. Used to be South Atlantic Forest. Removal of forest for agricultural land, leitmotif for Brazil's development. Where plantations were established.
What is the Agreste?
Transition between tropical and semi-arid. Subsistence, not commercial. Mannioc, not sugar.
How were the Zona Da Mata and Sertao opposite from each other?
Zona created wealth, Sertao was people just surviving.
How were the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, and Sao Tome important for Portuguese production of sugar?
Azores and Madeira- hilly, expensive to build farms on. Training for plantation system. Not a lot of slavery or imported labor. International population. Low entry cost.
Sao Tome- 1st time a European culture meets a truly tropical environment.
Portuguese had already practiced with sugar extensively by the time they go to Brazil and all of its land.
What is an engenho?
Engenho- land with cane and mill. Time constraints after you cut the sugar. Can't wait too long to process it!
Why didn't Brazil's sugar production innovate?
SUGAR MADE SO MUCH MONEY. Brazil land grants were still majority forest. Got lazy with their resources and didn't innovate
According to Curtin, what were the advantages of North East Brazil?
advantages of Northeast Brazil. Area of Reconcavo. Comparable to size of Connecticut. Area around city of Salvador- Bay of All Saints. Resource endowment favorable for cane sugar. Close to West Africa for the slave trade.
Economies of scale- greater than Sao Tome. Was linked to Antwerp for refining. Monoculture. Tied to most advanced capitalist region of Western Europe.
What were the 19th century challenges of Pernambuco?
19th C challenges in Pernambuco. Scale of production of sugar grows, yet can't keep up with competition. Main theme: transitions in global sugar industry. 1. Labor, 2. Technology.
What was the difference between Cuban sugar production and Brazilian sugar production?
Cuba had advanced technology, steam sugar mills. Brazil only used oxen, no railroad system. NO INNOVATION.
How is Usina example of slow Brazilian innovation?
Usina- steam powered sugar mill. Industrial Revolution brought to the tropics. People in Brazil didn't know how to use the technology, so there was no point in bothering. Still producing more than anyone else, but inefficiently. Real per capita income FELL in North East Brazil, it used to be the richest!
Why does coffee foster an exploitative land system?
offee is expensive to grow! 3-4 years until it yields a harvest. Heavy sunk costs. Continues to yield for 10-20 years at least.
Organization- monoculture, large lands, with slavery.
Brazil was about mass production, different than other country's small farm practices.
What happens to the soil in an exploitative landscape?
Exploitative landscape, soil would give out. Moved to interior to get new fresh land.
How did Brazilian plantations experiment with share croppers?
Experiment with wage earners. Guerro, a socialite. Guerro starts trying to bring white European people in by paying for transport.
Colonos- share croppers. Swiss, Germany, poor people.
Side by side on same property, you would have slaves next to share croppers. European immigrants knew they were getting a raw deal.
1859- Prussia bans German emigration to Brazil.
Planters don't want a free rural class! No USA style frontier farming. Colonos were not down with this.
Where were the ideal places for coffee plantations?
Planted coffee at the top of the valley to avoid frost. Frost will destroy a crop. Can be devastating.
Campinas- terra roxa everywhere Great for coffee!
How was Paulista West the most progressive yet retrograde section of Brazilian society?
Plantations west of Sao Paolo (Paulista West), most progressive and retrograde sector of Brazilian society. Had modern technology yet held on to slavery. More technically savvy than the sugar plantation.
What was the Rio Branco Law?
1st internal key step movement toward outlawing slavery in Brazil-1871-free birth of slave children. Rio Branco Law. Slave owners wanted compensation. Had to raise until 18 years old.
According to Weibel, what are the three topographic regions of Southern Brazil?
Southern Brazil consists of three topographic regions: the planaltos- highlands of the interior; the serras- steep eastern and southern slopes of the planaltos; the litoral- the narrow lowland strip along the coast
What were the cultivation methods of European settlers accordng to Weibel?
Methods of the European settlers in southern Brazil: majority of the settlers use the most primitive of all systems of cultivation known as land rotation. This has led to an economic and spatial separation of crop cultivation and stock raising.
According to Weibel, what were the three agricultural systems in colonized forests of Brazil?
Three main agricultural systems in the colonized forests of Brazil: primitive land-rotation system, improved land-rotation system, and crop rotation combined with stock raising
According to Weibel, why was plowing unsuitable for the colonized forests of Brazil?
Plows used on farms elsewhere in the world are unsuitable for the farms of European settlers in Brazil. Using a plow implies you have enough manure to even plow into the crop fields. Because of the spatial separation between crop cultivation and stock raising, settlers did not have a supply of manure to plow into the crops. Using a plow without manure quickens the exhaustion of the soil.
According to Weibel, what were the three things wrong with the European colonization of Brazil?
Three circumstances are primarily responsible. 1. Most immigrants were poor, and few were trained and experienced farmers. 2 The government's main idea was to people uninhabited areas, and little attention was paid to the economic well-being of the colonists. 3. The holdings allotted were too small
According to Weibel, what was the problem with the size of the land holdings of the European settlers?
The average size of the holding of a forest colonist in Southern Brazil was too small for the land-rotation system. Deterioration of land and people is still further accelerated by the common subdivision of the original holdings among heirs.
According to Dickenson, how was government policy towards agricultural colonization?
Government policy towards agricultural colonization was inconsistent. Government sought to encourage settlement in neglected areas of the country. This concern led to a focusing of colonization schemes in southern area, to confirm Brazilian occupation of the region. Government's concern was with the occupation and peopling of territory and less with their economic viability. Many were located in remote and isolated areas and had limited opportunities to develop commercial agriculture until transport access improved.
According to Dickenson, how was the colonial landscape different from the native Brazilian landscape?
Colonists created a landscape distinct from the Portuguese. It was a landscape of poly-culture, small-holdings and family labor. Land use tended to be more intensive and careful, and made use of crop rotation, fertilizers and machinery. The colonists in the South transformed the virgin forest into a cultivated land.
According to Dickenson, what did the Brazilian government do to combat the distinctiveness of the European settler colonies?
Colonists usually formed complete communities in remote areas so they retained their European traditions. Distinctiveness was deliberately fostered among some groups. The Brazilian government began to encourage integration into national society by insisting that education be in Portuguese. Immigration was also more closely controlled by the imposition of a quota system.
According to Dickenson, what was the pattern of Japanese immigration to Brazil?
Pattern of Japanese migration closely matches that of earlier European migrants. Japanese were recruited initially to replace European labor on the coffee fazendas after Italy had prohibited migration of its nationals to Brazil in 1902. Came as organized agricultural colonists and independent farmers. Japanese government was anxious to maintain an outlet for surplus population, and began to subsidize emigration to Brazil. They ended up being highly successful as farmers.
According to Dickenson, how did foreign immigrants impact Brazil?
Foreign immigrants had a profound and persisting impact on the society, economy and landscape of Brazil. They contributed to a substantial increase in the population, especially in the South-east and South, and significantly modified the racial structure. They facilitated the spread of the coffee landscape and introduced the very distinctive pattern of small farm poly-culture, and contributed significantly to the urban and industrial growth of the late 19th and 20th centuries.
According to Bell, what has been the major new development for the Campanha?
Major new development in Campanha land use was rice, the most recent addition to the cereal crops of Rio Grande do Sul. Apart from water availability, the leading factor explaining the spatial distribution of rice in this early phase was the proximity of commercial capital.