What are three types of environmental issues
Population growth, resource use, pollution
things found in nature that people can use to meet their needs. anything that occurs naturally in the environment and is used by people.
environmental issues are difficult to study and resolve because
they are interconnected
demand of a resource grows when
Congestion pricing is the practice of charging motorists more to use a roadway, bridge or tunnel during periods of the heaviest use.
Advantages of congestion pricing
reduces air pollution
air quality improves
motorists move faster
emergency sevices improve
fees collected from cong. pricing will be used to improve public transportation
disadvantages of congestion pricing
puts an unfair tax
too much burden on the poorest people
costs too much to set up
need to set up booth tolls or cameras
if public transportation is not good it might make it difficult to get to destination
the total number of people in a given area
What contributes to population growth
improvement in medicine, agricultural and waste disposal development
The ways in which we obtain and use naturally occurring materials such as soil, wood, water, gas, oil, or minerals.
conflicts arese when a natural resource is
scarce or used in a way that people feel is unfair
undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities
types of pollution
air, land and water pollution
causes of pollution
noise, heat, wastes, chemichals, light, and other sources
(burning of gasoline)
point source and non pointn source
a specific source of pollution that can be identified
non point source
a widely spread source of pollution, such as road runoff, that is difficult to link to a specific point of origin
environmental decision making requires
a balance between what people need and what the environment needs.
what do decision makers do before making a decision makers
weigh costs and benefits
decision making could be
ecological or economical
Natural resources include
organisms, water, sunlight, minerals and oil.
resources that can be replaced in a short amount of time
resources that cannot be replaced in a short amount of time, people will use them up before they can be replaced by nature
examples of renewable resources
sunlight, wind, water and trees
examples of nonrenewable resources
fuels,oil, coal humans use oil and coal faster that they can replace it. Humans depend on Natural resources for survival and develpoment.
How long does a resource lasts?
Depends on how people use it
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
use of resources at a rate that they can be replaced or recycled
A way of measuring how much of an impact a person or community has on the earth. Someone who uses more natural resources will have a bigger footprint than someone who uses less.
protecting, preserving, and managing Earth's natural resources
population grows at an ever increasing rate
if healthcare technology improves death rate decreases and birth rates increases
A controversial type of clear-cutting is whole tree harvesting. In tub grinding
whole tree harvesting, machines cut the tree at ground level or sometimes even
uproot the entire tree. The tree is then cut into wood chips by a machine. This
method is only used for site preparation for development or construction, and it
causes severe ecological damage. No large roots remain to hold the soil in place,
greatly increasing erosion. Dead and fallen logs are also removed, causing the loss
of many wildlife habitats and decreasing the amount of nutrients returned to the soil
and available for use by plants that survive. The forestry practice of whole tree
chipping uses only the live wood cut off at ground level. It does not remove dead
wood or forest litter, thus it does not result in the same environmental damage.
2 methods of logging
quicker, cheaper and safer for the loggers
safer for the environment and less damaging to the forest
An area with a large population of valuable ocean organisms.
sustainable yield of fish
strategies such as:
setting fishing limits, changing fishing methods,developing aquaculture techniques
finding new resources
the raising of aquatic organisms for human consumption
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
A form of tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas.
a species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem
chemical factors that determine traits
combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
a species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
a species that could become endangered in the near future
biodiversity is affected by
natural events, habitat destruction, poaching pollution, introduciong exotic species.
no longer in existence
what factors affect biodiversity
climate, area, niche diversity, genetic diversity and extinction.
the loss of a natural habitat
Breakup of a habitat into smaller pieces, usually as a result of human activities.
Release of harmful materials into the environment
illegal hunting of protected animals
protection of biodiversity
captive breeding, laws and treaties, habitat preservation
the mating of animals in zoos or wildlife preserves
the best way to protect biodiversity is to protect whole ecosystems--protecting whole ecosystems saves not only endagered species, but also the species they depend upon and those that depent upon them