AP Psycho Final/AP Exam Review - Test 2

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Questions on learning and memory

Immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers

In order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use:

a half-second before the food

An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light:

biological predispositions

After pigs learned to pick and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of _____ in operant conditioning.

experience

The most crucial ingredient in all learning is:

generalization

After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of:

biological predispositions

Children learn to fear spiders than they learn to fear flowers. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.

observational learning (Bandura)

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of Superman on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?

continuous; partial

A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior is to be resistant to the extinction, she should use _____ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of _____ reinforcement.

operant conditioning

Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. his changes in behavior best illustrates the value of:

Skinner

The psychologist most closely associated with operant conditioning was/is:

operant conditioning

Compared with apartment dwellers whose landlords pay their electricity costs, those apartment dwellers who pay their own electric bills use less electricity. This most clearly illustrates that consumer electricity usage is influenced by:

chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

A skinner box is a:

punishment

An event that decreases the behavior that precedes it is a:

external influences

According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:

reinforcement; punishment

The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to _______ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ______.

generalization

Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of:

acquisition

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called:

biological predisposition

It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of _____ in learning.

negative

Escape from an aversive stimulus is a ______ reinforcer.

generalization

Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bedwetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he has the urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate:

classical conditioning

By learning to associate a squirt of eater with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of:

operant conditioning

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:

Pavlov

The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is:

behaviorist

John B. Watson considered himself to be a:

classical conditioning

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which process accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?

conditioned response (it is the sight of the dish, NOT the food)

A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a:

CS; US

In classical conditioning, the _______ signals the impending occurrence of the _______.

shortly before the US

For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented:

extinction

After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ______ occurred.

spontaneous recovery

Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his dear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates:

generalization

After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress, Vaclav's reaction best illustrates:

survival

Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote:

operant conditioning

Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of:

the law of effect

B.F. Skinner's work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called:

successive approximations

An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of:

shaping

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:

positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shot as _______ is to ________.

secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer

Money is to food as ______ is to _____.

reinforcement over punishment

For the purpose of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of:

latent learning

If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates:

cognitive maps

Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called:

observational learning (Bandura)

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of:

modeling

Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to:

long-term

A flashbulb memory would typically be store in ______ memory.

long-term

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ______ memory.

automatic processing

Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as:

encoding

Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to:

encoding failure

The next-in-line effect best illustrates:

rehearsal

The serial position effect best illustrates the importance of:

meaning; imagery

Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as _______ is to _______.

memory aid

A mnemonic device is a:

chunking

The method of loci is to imagery as acronyms are to:

the organization of information into meaningful units

Chunking refers to:

sensory

Explicit memory is to long-term memory as iconic memory is to ______ memory.

Visual stimulation; auditory stimulation

Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ______ is to _______.

explicit

Conscious memory of factual information is called _____ memory.

implicit; explicit

Cerebellum is to _____ memory as hippocampus is to ______ memory.

hippocampus; cerebellum

Explicit memory is to _____ as implicit memory is to ________.

drunk; drunk (state dependent learning)

Information learned while a person is _____ is best recalled when that person is ______.

retention; acquisition

Storage is to encoding as _____ is to ______.

priming

Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as:

rehearsal

Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of:

short-term

Peterson and Peterson asked people to count aloud backward after they were presented with three consonants. This study finds that ________ memories have a limited duration without active processing and rehearsal.

recognition

An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is best utilized?

getting information out of memory storage

The process of retrieval refers to:

proactive interference

What best explains why Ebbinghaus found the task of learning new lists of nonsense syllables increasingly difficult as his research career progressed?

retrieval cues

The discovery that words heard underwater are later better recalled underwater than on land best illustrates the value of:

priming

Reading a romantic novel caused Consuela to recall some old experiences with a high school boyfriend. The effect of the novel on Consuela's memory retrieval is an illustration of:

semantic encoding

The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:

proactive intereference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called:

retrieval failure

Sigmund Freud emphasized that the forgetting of painful experiences is caused by a process that involves:

sensory

After hamsters learned whether to turn right or left in a maze in order to find food, their body temperature was lowered until the electrical activity in their brains ceased. When the hamsters were revived, they still remembered what they had learned prior to their "blackout." The hamster's directional memory was apparently a(n) ______ memory.

getting information into memory

The process of encoding refers to:

the spacing effect

Students who restudy course material at the end of a semester in order to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of:

chunking

The use of acronyms to improve one's memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of:

memory construction

The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics of:

semantic encoding

Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of:

semantic encoding

One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label most of their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires:

the misinformation effect

Those who are eager to use hypnosis in order to facilitate eyewitness recollections of the details of a crime should first be warned of the dangers of:

retrieval failure

The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name. Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by:

conscious awareness

Automatic processing occurs without:

encoding

Automatic processing and effortful processing involve two types of:

the misinformation effect

Police interrogators have been trained to ask less suggestive and more effective questions in order to avoid:

echoic

For a moment after hearing his dog's high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of the dog's yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ______ memory.

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