D'amico ch 17 cardio Quiz (Ken's)

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All the bold terms I could find in cardio and childhood cardio sections. Let me know if you guys find problems with any definitions. Thanks! Ken

Pericardium

Thin three layered sac that covers and protects the heart. Two parietal layers, the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium make up the parietal layer outside, then a thin layer of serous fluid for lube, then the visceral pericardium closely covers the heart. 426

Visceral pericardium

Inner layer of pericardium, lines the outer surface of the heart 426

Heart

Four chamber pump, extends from the second rib to the fifth intercostal space 426

Mediastinal space

Center thoracic area, contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels. 426

Epicardium

The outermost layer of the heart. Really the same as the visceral pericardium. 427

Myocardium

Middle, muscular layer of the heart, cardiac muscle 427

Endocardium

Innermost layer of the heart. Smooth, inner lining of the heart's chambers 427

Right Atrium

Thin walled heart chamber above and to the right of the right ventricle. Pulmonary side, tricuspid valve 428

Right Ventricle

Thick, triangular heart chamber, pulmonary side, pushes blood into pulmonary trunk through semilunar valve. Anterior portion of heart 428

Left Atrium

Receives O2 rich blood from the pulmonary veins and pumps it into the left ventricle. Posterior portion of the heart. Thicker than the right atrium. 428

Left Ventricle

Receives blood from the left atrium, through the mitral valve, pumps to the aorta through semilunar valve, systemic side, stronger than the pulmonary. Behind the left ventricle. 428

Atrioventricular Valves

Separates the atria from the ventricles. Includes the right, pulmonary tricuspid valve, and the left, mitral, or bicuspid valve. 429

Semilunar Valves

Separates the ventricles from the vascular system, valves 429

S1

Sound heard when the AV valves close, (Lub) 429

S2

Sound heard when the aortic and pulmonary, or semilunar valves close after contraction of the ventricles. (dub) 429

Systole

Phase of ventricular contraction, begins with the AV (mitral and tricuspid)valves closing, ends with the aortic and pulmonic (semilunar) valves closing. 429

Diastole

Phase of ventricular relaxation, atrial contraction. Starts with the closure of theaortic and pumonary (semilunar) valves, and ends with the closure of the AV (mitral and tricuspid) valves 429

Heart Murmurs

Harsh blowing sounds caused by disruption of blood flow into the heart, between the chambers of the heart or from the heart into the pulmonary or aortic systems. 431

Cardiac Conduction System

The electrical system in the heart. Includes the Sinoatrial (SA) node, the Intra atrial conduction pathways, the Atrioventricular (AV) node, the Bundle of His, the right and left Bundle Branches and the Purkinje Fibers. All work together to make the heart contract properly and pump blood. 434

Sinoatrial (SA) node

Electrical center that Initiates the electrical impulse to cause heart contraction. Pacemaker of the heart 60-100 bpm pg 434

atrioventricular node (AV) node

Electrical center between the atria and the ventricles. Slows signal slightly to delay ventricular contraction until atria have finished contracting. Also capable of independent firing if SA node fails. 40-60 bpm pg434

Bundle of His

Electrical wiring which gets it's impulse from the AV node. Slows impulse slightly, giving atria time to finish filling the ventricles. Connects to the bundle branches . 434

Bundle Branches

Electrical wiring from the Bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers. Left and right fibers run down interventricular septum between the ventricles. Spreads the impulse through the myocardial tissue. Aso capable of independant firing if SA and AV node fail. 436

Purkinje Fibers

Electrical wiring, from the left and right Bundle Branches into the Myocardial tissue to cause the ventricles to contract. 436

Sternum

Flat center chest bone, made up of the Manubrium, Body, and Xiphoid Process. 437

cardiac cycle

The events of one complete heart beat, including contraction and relaxation of atria and ventricles. 437

Period of ventricular filling

Event beginning of the cardiac cycle, blood enters passively onto the ventricles from the atria, ~70%. Then the "atrial kick" finishes the filling. 437

Ventricular systole

Event: The ventricles are electrically stimulated and contract, mitral and tricuspid valves shut, semi lunar valves open, and blood rushes into systemic and pulmonary circulation. 437

Isovolumetric Relaxation

Event: The ventricles finish contracting, the pressure in the arteries is higher than in ventricles, semilunar valves snap shut "S2" 437

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A visual representation of the electrical depolarization wave as it sweeps through the heart. The cardiac cell at rest is normally more positively charged on the outside than on the inside. The electrical signal flips this, and the cell contracts. 438

P Wave

First point of ECG, represents signal from SA node and part of atrial depolarization and initialization of contraction atria 0.08 sec. 439

PR interval

Interval in the ECG for electrical current to travel across both atria and arrive at the AV node, 0.12 to 0.2 sec. 439

QRS interval

Interval in the ECG, Ventricular depolarization, atrial repolarization, lasts 0.08 to 0.11 sec. 439

T Wave

Spot in EKG, marks ventricular repolarization Last wave. 439

QT Interval

Interval in ECG, represents the period from start of ventricular depolarization to moment of repolarization. Ventricular contraction. 439

Stroke volume

Amount of blood ejected with every heart beat. 439

Cardiac output

Amount of blood ejected from left ventricle in 1 min. Adult ~ 4-8 L. 439

Xanthelasma

Deposits of yellowish cholesterol seen on eyelids. Indicative of premature Atherosclerosis 453

Infective endocarditis

Bacterial infiltration of lining of the heat chambers. Associated with splinter hemorrhages of the nail bed. 455

Thrill

Soft vibratory sensations felt on the chest. Indicative of elevated ventricular volume or aortic regurgitation depending on location and character. Best felt in intercostal spaces with fingertips or flat palm on chest. Also "heaves" (abnormal) 458

Bruit

Loud blowing sound in the heart, (abnormal) 461

Ductus venosus

Prenatal duct in vein system that shunts blood away from heart and liver. Closes at birth or within 12-72 hrs. 787

Ductus arteriosus

Prenatal duct in artery system that shunts blood away from pulmonary to systemic system . Closes shortly after birth. 441 and 787

Foramen Ovale

Prenatal duct through atrial septum to shunt blood away from pulmonary circulation. Closes shortly after birth. 441 and 787

Sinus arrhythmia

Heart period variability, heart rate increases on inspiration, decreases on expiration. Common until early adulthood. From Parasympathetic inervation of the heart. 787

Innocent murmurs

Childhood heart noises caused by increased blood flow across normal heart structures. Fairly common, 75% of children will have this at some time. 787

Coarctation of the aorta

Congenital defect. A narowing of the aorta, resulting in decreased femoral and increased upper extremity pulses. 787

parietal pericardium

the outer two layers of pericardium, the fiberous and outer serous layers that form a sack that the heart moves inside of. 427

Arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)

Fatty buildup in the arteries feeding the heart, may lead to Ischemia and death of myocardial tissue (heart attack)

Atherosclerosis

A build up of fatty plaques and cholesterol on the inside of artery walls, can decrease or block blood flow.

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