A & P Lecture #4 Study Guide- Blood Vessels

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Name the order of blood vessels starting and ending at the heart

Heart>Arteries>arterioles>capillaries>venules>veins>
back to heart

What are the 3 layers of an artery/vein

Tunica interna, Tunica media, & Tunica externa

How many layers does a capillary have

Only 1, Tunica interna

What are the key characteristics of arteries

Carry blood away from the heart, attached to ventricles,contain smooth muscle & elastic tissue

What are the 3 types of arteries

Elastic, Muscular, & Arterioles

What type of artery would the aorta be classified as

Elastic, largest and able to withstand really high blood pressure

What is the smallest artery

Arterioles

What artery distributes blood to the organs

Muscular artery

What is an example of a muscular artery

Renal artery

What are the characteristics of veins

carry blood from all tissues & return to the r & l atrium, thinner walls than arteries, contain valves in their walls, contain 65% of body's blood

What is the smallest vein

Venules ( collecting)

Is the tunica media of a vein thinner or thicker than an artery, explain

Thinner, blood pressure is lower so they do not need as much smooth muscle

What type of vessel contains the most blood

Veins

What percent of blood do veins contain

65%

What is the function of valves in veins

To make sure that the blood doesn't flow backwards

Where in the body do veins CONTAIN valves

Upper & lower limbs, neck/head

Where in the body do veins NOT contain valves

Thoracic & Abdominal cavities

Name the 2 mechanisms for venous return

Muscular Compression pump, Respiratory pump

What happens when valves in the veins weaken

blood tends to pool in the veins leading to varicose veins or hemorrhoids

What does the muscular compression pump do

contractions of skeletal muscles help push blood toward the heart, occurs during normal movement, walking

What is the only blood vessel whose walls permit the exchange of materials

Capillaries

What is a continuous capillary

Do not have pores , permit exchange of smaller substances

What substance passes through a continuous capillary

Water, ions

What is a fenestrated capillary

Contain pores

What substance passes through a sinusoid capillary

Proteins

What is a siusoid

Contain large pores, permit exchange of larger materials

Where are the pores in continuous & fenestrated capillaries

Tunica interna

How does the blood flow through a capillary bed

Bands of smooth muscle at the entrance of capillaries, precapillary sphincters alternately contract & relax, as a result blood flow occurs in pulses .

What is vasomotion

Cycling of contraction & relaxation of smooth muscle that changes blood flow thru capillary beds

What is a Metarteriole

Vessel at the beginning of capillary bed, contains precapillary sphincter

What is a precapillary sphincter

Band of smooth muscle that controls blood flow thru a capillary bed

What is Thoroughfare channel

Capillary connecting the metarteriole to the venule

What is the direct connection of an arteriole & venule known as

Arteriovenous anastomoses

What does an arteriovenous anastomoses bypass

Capillary bed

Define blood circulation

Related to blood pressure & the resistance in the vessels

Define pressure

The greater the pressure is within a blood vessel, the faster the blood flows

What is the blood circulation formula

Blood flow is proportional to pressure gradient divided by resistance

What are the different types of pressures that exist within blood vessels

Arterial, Capillary Hydrostatic pressure(CHP) & venous

Which pressure in the blood vessels is the highest

Arterial blood pressure,blood flows the fastest

Which pressure is the lowest in blood vessels

Venous, blood flows the slowest

What blood vessel does blood flow medium

CHP- capillary hydrostatic pressure

Define resistance

The LOWER the resistance, the faster the blood flows

What are the types of resistance that exist in blood vessels

Vascular resistance, Viscosity, & Turbulence

What is vascular resistance

How much friction exists between the blood & walls of the blood vessels

What is Viscosity

How "thick & syrupy" a fluid is

What is Turbulence

How "smooth" the blood flow

If a vessel is more viscous do you have more or less resistance,

More resistance

What does More viscous & More resistance do to blood flow

Slower blood flow

If a vessel is less viscous and less resistance
what happen to blood flow

Faster blood flow

More turbulence= more resistance= what kind of blood flow

Slower blood flow

Less turbulence=Less resistance= what kind of blood flow

Faster blood flow

Define pulmonary circuit

Consists of vessels that carry blood FROM the heart, TO the lungs, and BACK TO the heart.

Does the right or left ventricle pump into the pulmonary trunk

right ventricle

Do the pulmonary arteries contain oxygenated or deoxygeneated blood

Deoxygenated

During gas exchange, does oxygen move into or out of the blood

Into the blood

What gas moves out of the blood during gas exchange

Carbon dioxide

Which blood vessels return the blood from the lungs to the left atrium

Right & Left pulmonary veins

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