UNIT 5--mdlp Earth and Space Science

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Fine grained mafic rocks are usually

a. cataclastic X
b. ignoplastic X
c. dark colored
d. light colored X

dark colored

Clastics are formed through 3 steps, including sediment

lithification, melting, solidification X
metamorphism, erosion, thermal expansion X
creation, transportation, deposition
mass movement, eruption, deposition

creation, transportation, deposition

Eroded material generally does not "fall out" of which method of erosion

wind
ice
transpiration
water

ice

Large-scale metamorphism is likely

cataclastic
metarithic
regional
contact

regional

Burial of sediments causes temperature and pressures to

overflow
increase
remain the same
decrease

increase

To identify the chemistry of a fine-grained igneous rock, you may need to look at its

color
shape X
texture X
size

color

Particles kept in motion by the collisions of other rolling particles describes the

pressure gradient
suspended load X
bed load
displacement theory

bed load

The process by which overlying layers of sediment press down on the deposited material, forcing out water and reducing the volume of the mass is

hesitation
freon
compaction
cementation

compaction

Intrusive rocks are usually

coarse grained
fine grained
cataclastic X
ignoplastic X

coarse grained

Hydrothermal solutions are

heated lava
heated, mineral-rich waters
batholith contents
fissures

heated, mineral-rich waters

Agents of erosion include

wind, melting, and magma
glaciers, volcanoes, and metamorphism
wind, water, and ice
volcanoes, fault block mountains, and metamorphism

wind, water, ice

Rocks that formed from the cooling and hardening of molten material from the earth's crust or mantle are called

cataclastic
metamorphic X
sedimentary
igneous

igneous

Alternating quiet and violent eruptions best describe a

strato (composite) volcano
cinder cone volcano
shield volcano
meta volcano

strato (composite) volcano

Minerals deposited between sediment particles, acting as cement binding the particles together is

cementation
flowance
compaction
cryoturbation

cementation

An increasing grade of metamorphism is a result of

decreasing heat and decreasing pressure
increasing heat and increasing pressure
decreasing heat and increasing pressure
increasing heat and decreasing pressure

increasing heat and increasing pressure

Viscous molten rock material tends to make

violent eruptions
paleo layers
component layers
calm eruptions

violent eruptions

The general term for processes that turn rock sediment into consolidated sedimentary rock is

cementation
lithification
calcification
compaction X

lithification

Angular-shaped particles means that the sediment is

far from the source
close to the source
in midair
particle shape doesn't reveal the distance to the source

close to the source

Rapid cooling rocks are usually

ignoplastic
cataclastic X
coarse grained X
fine grained

fine grained

Rocks that form on the surface of the earth by the compaction and cementation of weathered rocks or precipitated minerals are

igneous
sedimentary
metamorphic
paleomorphic

sedimentary

Bedding may reveal

a change in the source material
all the choices are correct
a change in the energy (velocity) of the transporting agent
seasonal or global changes in climate

all the choices are correct

Any evidence of past life including original preserved material, casts, molds impressions, tracks, trails, and burrows are

flute marks
varves
components
fossils

fossils

Fine grained felsic rocks are usually

dark colored X
cataclastic X
light colored
ignoplasticX

light colored

The greatest potential for moving enormous sized chunks of martial is in what method of erosion?

ice
water X
transpiration
wind

Ice

The large mass of magma that feeds a volcano is the

maar X
stock X
caldera
batholith

batholith

An igneous rock exposed to great heat and pressure without melting may become

a laccolith
metamorphic
lava
magma

metamorphic

A large intrusion that runs parallel to rock layers is a

sill
dike X
stock
batholith

sill

Heat from nearby volcanism creates

contact metamorphism
regional metamorphism
cataclastic metamorphism
meta volcanism

contact metamorphism

The Rocky Mountains are forming as a result of

contact metamorphism
cataclastic metamorphism
meta volcanism
regional metamorphism

regional metamorphism

Pressure from all directions, such as when layers of sediment build up is

directed pressure X
confining pressure
meta volcanism X
paleo volcanism

confining pressure

Molten rock at the earth's surface is

lava
paleocomponent
plutonic
magma

lava

A temperature dependent sequence through which igneous rocks crystallize is

Moh's Hardness Scale
Bowen's Reaction Series
Kent Igneous Sequence X
Rhinoplatic Sequence

Bowen's Reaction Series

Another word for viscosity is

volcanic X
metamorphic X
temperature X
thickness

thickness

Particles all of one size are described as

cross bedded
lithographically sound
poorly sorted
well sorted

well sorted

Sandstone and shale are examples of what type of sedimentary rock?

component
paleo
clastic
non-clastic

clastic

Minerals deposited between sediment particles, acting as cement binding the particles together is

cryoturbation
cementation
compaction
flowance

cementation

Metamorphic rocks are classified as

stationary, hydrothermal, and derived
igneous, sedimentary and evaporite
shale, slate, and schist
foliated, nonfoliated, and metaconglomerate

foliated, nonfoliated, and metaconglomerate

Large crystals in a mass of fine-grained rock is

component
phaneritic
aphanitic
porphyritic

porphyritic

Extreme rapid cooling creates

glass
vesicles
porphyry
groundmass

glass

Intermediate magmas are most likely to form at

an oceanic rift
a hot spot
a subduction zone
a mid-oceanic ridge

a mid-oceanic ridge

Coarse-grained rock is

paleolithic X
phaneritic
aphanitic
porphyritic

phaneritic

Flows reaching one hundred miles across best describes a

strato (composite) volcano
meta volcano
cinder cone volcano
shield volcano

shield volcano

The alignment of platy minerals in metamorphism creates

striations
freon
foliation
lateral force

foliation

A collapsed volcano may form a

caldera
fissure
meta volcano
dome

caldera

Sedimentary rocks form by

melting and freezing
deposition and precipitation
contact intrusions
heating without melting

deposition and precipitation

Within the earth's crust, the presence of water

cause paleomagnetism
divides the melting point
increases the melting point
decreases the melting point

decreases the melting point

The gradual temperature increase as you go into the earth is called

Bowen's Reaction Series
country rock
eruptive sequence
geothermal gradient

geothermal gradient

The type of pyroclastic material that will likely travel farthest from the volcano is (are)

ash
cinders
a block
a bomb

ash

The copper industry of Arizona is most interested in

sedimentary areas
metamorphic areas
igneous areas
paleo volcanos

metamorphic areas

Uneven pressure, such as during mountain building processes, is

meta volcanism X
directed pressure
paleo volcanism X
confining pressure

directed pressure

Fine grained rock is

phaneritic
aphanitic
porphyritic
paleoritic

aphanitic

The general term for processes that turn rock sediment into consolidated sedimentary rock is

lithification
compaction X
calcification
cementation

lithification

A long crack in the crust through which lava may emerge is a

dome
caldera
fissure
maar

fissure

Poorly-sorted sediment means that the material is

sorting doesn't reveal the distance to the source X
far from the source
in midair
close to the source

close to the source

Any evidence of past life including original preserved material, casts, molds, impressions, tracks, trails, and burrows are

components
varves
fossils
flute marks

fossils

Marble is metamorphosed

shale
slate
limestone
quartz

limestone

The molten rock found in a subsurface environment is called

volcanic
lava
magma
paleomagnetic

magma

Fine fragments changing to coarser and larger sized fragments as one moves down the bed is

flute marks
graded bedding
ripple marks
varves

graded bedding

The creation of the Hawaiian Islands can be attributed to

a subduction zone X
a hot spot
a mid oceanic ridge X
an oceanic rift X

a hot spot

The most common rock type found on the earth's surface is

igneous
sedimentary
metamorphic
paleomorphic

sedimentary

Rocks that usually have visible crystals are

explosive
component
extrusive X
intrusive

intrusive

Vesicular basalt contains

paleo crystals
air pockets
large quartz crystals X
phenocrysts X

air pockets

Metamorphic rocks form in

areas ear volcanic activity
areas with hydrothermal solutions
areas of tectonic activity
all of the choices

All

Within the earth's crust, which is true?

pressure doesn't affect melting point
increased pressure decreases melting point
decreased pressure increases melting point
increased pressure increases melting point

increased pressure increases melting point

Most foliated rocks are a result of

contact metamorphism
cataclastic metamorphism X
regional metamorphism
meta volcanism

regional metamorphism

Which is the larger clastic?

gravel X
cobble
sand
silt

cobble

Limestone is an example of what type of sedimentary rock?

a. clastic X
b. non-clastic
c. component
d. paleo X

non-clastic

The gas content of an erupting cinder cone volcano is

a. lithic
b. medium
c. high
d. low

high

Flows reaching 100 miles across best describes a

a. meta volcano
b. shield volcano
c. strato (composite) volcano
d. cinder cone volcano X

shield volcano

Heat from a meteor impact or explosive volcanic eruption creates

a. contact metamorphism
b. regional metamorphism
c. cataclastic metamorphism
d. meta volcaism

cataclastic metamorphism

Within the earth's crust, the presence of gases

a. increases the melting point X
b. cause paleomagnetism X
c. decreases the melting point
d. divides the melting point

decreases the melting point

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