Psychology Test 3

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Coleman is currently 30 years old. When he was 15 years old, he took the WISC and was told that his score was 110. If Coleman retakes the intelligence test now (WAIS), he would likely discover that his current IQ score

is similar to his previous score of 110

Memory of 'chronological' and 'dated' personal experiences is referred to as

episodic memory

Looking back on her long life, Hilda feels good about herself and her accomplishments and swears that she would do it again the same way if given the opportunity. According to Erikson"s theory, Hilda is at the stage of

integrity versus despair

At the preconventional level, the child decides if things are good or bad (moral) on the basis of whether they

bring punishment or reward

If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are evidencing

a mental set

Research shows that IQ and occupational attainment (e.g., how high one is in Othe corporate ladderO) are _____________ variables.

positively correlated

The two identity statuses that decrease with age are

identity diffusion and identity foreclosure

Correlations between IQ scores and school grades can best be characterized as

moderately positive

When Teresa"s mother hides her favorite doll under a blanket, Teresa acts as if it no longer exists, and she makes no attempt to look for it. Based on this information, you can infer that Teresa is in Piaget"s

sensorimotor period of cognitive development

Which level of processing should result in the longest lasting memory codes?

semantic encoding

According to Erikson, the first stage of development (birth to one year) is a period when the infant develops the basic characteristic of

trust versus mistrust

The consensus among most experts in the area of intelligence is that the heritability of intelligence is

around 50 percent

Ten-year-old Kylee is trying to remember the capital of North Carolina during a game of 'Where Are You?' Her father tells her it begins with the letter 'R,' and she quickly comes up with Raleigh. In this case, Kylee"s memory was assisted using

an effective retrieval cue

The concept of motivated forgetting is based largely on the work of which of the following early psychologists?

Sigmund Freud

Which of the following statements regarding the role of context in memory is MOST accurate?

Context cues often facilitate the retrieval of information

A major shortcoming of stage theories of development is that

they pay too little attention to explaining individual differences (e.g., Ostage mixingO)

Tyler witnessed an automobile accident and heard one of the bystanders casually mention that the driver was probably intoxicated. Even though the driver had not been drinking, and had never crossed the center line, Tyler tells the police officer who is investigating the accident that the car had been 'weaving all over the road.' Tyler"s faulty recall illustrates

the misinformation effect

Which of the following areas of the brain is associated with the severe memory impairment that occurs in Alzheimer"s disease?

hippocampal region

Since IQ scores are assumed to be normally distributed, an IQ score of 100 would put you

at the center of the normal curve

Mercedes takes her 1-year-old son, Justice, to visit a day-care center where she plans to enroll him. Justice eagerly explores the playroom as long as Mercedes is present. When his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms, Justice becomes somewhat upset, but when Mercedes returns, he quickly calms down. This is the type of interaction you might observe between a child and a parent who

share a secure attachment relationship

Which of the following is an expression of the nurture side of the nature versus nurture argument?

An intellectually stimulating environment can lead to noticeable increases in the IQs of disadvantaged children.

The man responsible for developing the first intelligence tests designed to predict the school performance of children was

Alfred Binet

Mark is listening as his roommate lists 14 things that they need to buy for their apartment before the end of the week. Based on George Miller"s research into the capacity of short-term memory, if Mark doesn"t write the items down as he hears them, he is MOST likely to remember

between 5 and 9 items from the list

Nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts is referred to as

a semantic network

Decay theory suggests that forgetting is due to

memory traces fading with time

The tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem while neglecting other important aspects is referred to as

centration

The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is

encoding storage retrieval

For most people, which of the following is MOST likely to decline in the later years?

mental speed

Juliana had no prior fear of flying. But since she has seen all the TV reports and headlines about a recent plane crash, she has decided she will never fly again because she thinks thereOs a good chance the plane will crash. In this case, Juliana"s decision to stop flying may have been influenced by

the availability heuristic

When you mentally picture the road between your house and school, you are relying on which component of working memory?

the visuospatial sketchpad

In early adulthood, the psychosocial crisis centers on establishing close, personal relationships with others. This is the stage of

intimacy versus isolation

A student"s organized cluster of knowledge about how college professors are supposed to act is an example of a

schema

John approaches problems systematically, considering various solutions and the consequences of each, before he decides on the implementation of any one solution. John is probably at which level of cognitive development?

formal operations

Two students took a memory test. Twenty nouns were shown sequentially on a TV monitor. Mallory tried to think of rhymes for each word as it appeared on the monitor. Bailey tried to think of ways each word could be used in a sentence. Based on Craik and Lockhart"s levels-of-processing theory, you should predict that

Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding

Procedural memory is:

memory for actions, skills, and operations

If a test accurately measures what it was designed to measure, the test is

valid

The work of researchers like Loftus on errors in memory suggests that memory is best viewed as

reconstruction of events

You have a pair of pliers and a bag of nuts in the shell. You are lamenting the fact that you can"t shell the nuts because you do not have a nutcracker. Your inability to perceive the pliers as a makeshift nutcracker demonstrates __________ on your part

functional fixedness

Which of the following statements regarding differences in IQ is NOT supported by research findings?

children from the lowest social classes about 15 points lower on IQ tests than do children from the highest social classes

Which of the following statements best reflects the current view of the repressed memories controversy?

we should be extremely careful about accepting recovered memories of abuse in the absence of convincing corroboration

Identity foreclosure suggests that the person is committed to goals he or she

simply took over form others

At what age does an infant typically first exhibit separation anxiety?

6 to 8 months

According to Robert Sternberg, IQ tests tend to focus narrowly on which of the following types of intelligence?

academic/verbal

Gerard watched as a researcher placed five toy station wagons and three toy convertibles on a table. The researcher asked him if there were more station wagons or more cars, and Gerard correctly answered that there were more cars. Gerard"s answer indicates that he has mastered

hierarchial classification problems

The person who objects to war on the basis of higher moral principles and a personal code of ethics would be said to be at which of the following levels of moral development?

postconventional

Which of Greeno"s basic kinds of problems requires the problem solver to discover the relations among the parts of the problem?

inducing structure

__________ occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.

retroactive interface

A tentative answer to the heredity versus environment question with respect to intelligence is that

heredity may set certain limits on intelligence, and environmental factors determine where we fall within those limits

Which of the following appears to be most responsible for ethnic differences in IQ?

the cultural disadvantages associated with a lower-class upbringing

Byron has been watching his new neighbor for a week. She drives a sporty car, carries a cell phone, and wears nothing but blue business suits. Byron decides his new neighbor must be a lawyer. In this case, Byron seems to have formed an opinion about his new neighbor"s occupation based on

representativeness heuristic

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