First 10 Alkanes
methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane
10 Alkane structures
CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C4H10, C5H12, C6H14, C7H16, C8H18, C9H20, C10H22
hydrocarbons that have the general formula CnH2n and contain a carbon-carbon double bond
Hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. They have the general formula CnH2n-2
A carbon compound in which the ends of the carbon chain have bonded together to form a ring.
organic compounds that contain one or more benzene rings as part of their molecular structure
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
that which has mass and occupies space
the amount of matter in an object
a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
a molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.
substances formed by the joining of elements through chemical bonding. every molecule of a compound is the same.
complex molecules organized around skeletons of carbon atoms arranged in rings or chains; includes biomolecules molecules synthesized by living organisms.
States of Matter
solid, liquid, gas, plasma
can be observed & measured w/o changing the composition (color, odor, density, boiling point, malleability).
a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
describe a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties
a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
substances change phases by adding or subtracting energy
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
Mixture that is the same throughout
substance thats not the same throughout
a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
Separation of mixtures
physical means break down mixtures into their components
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
Dalton's atomic theory
1) elements are composed of atoms. 2) atoms of same element are identical, but differ from other elements. 3) elements can mix together 4) atoms only change when mixed with other elements
1897 used cathode ray and positively charged plates to discover electrons (thought electrons were "stuck" in uniform, positively charged matter to form an atom)
Rutherford's atomic theory
1) the nucleus is a tiny, dense, positively charged region
2)positively charged particles that pass close by the nucleus are pushed away by the positive charges in the nucleus
3) atoms are mostly empty space
Bohr's atomic theory
Electrons have a fixed energy and move around the nucleus in that fixed level of energy. By absorbing or releasing energy, that electon can change levels. Claled the Plantary Model.
protons (+), neutrons (no charge), and electrons (-)
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Periods and Groups
periods=number of energy levels and they are rows, groups=number of valence electrons and they are columns
the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)
Alkaline earth metals
one of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium)
the elements of Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine)
one of the elements of group 18 of the periodic table(helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon). noble gases are un-reactive
1. normal metals (silver, copper, etc.)
2. have more than 1 ocsidation state
3. un-reactive, transitional metal
4. can conduct electricity
5. very stable, found in nature
6. bend easily
have a shiny or metallic luster, good conductors of heat and electricity
elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature
elements that have characteristics of metals and nonmetals
electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
positively charged ions
negatively charged ions
ions that are made of more than one atom
a compound that consists of positive and negative ions
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
system of measurement that are used throughout the world when performing calculations related to scientific investigations
Inches, feet, yards, miles
the standard units of measurement in the metric system, based on the number 10 and muliples of 10
all the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit
A ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units; is always equal to 1 and changes the units of a quantity without changing its value.
Mole (Avogadro's Number)
A mole is a quantity of a substance with a number of parts equal to Avogadr's Number (which is the number of Carbon-12 atoms in 12 grams of Carbon-12, or about 6.022 *10^23 particles).
Molar Mass (MM)
the mass of one mole of particles that comprises a substance, g/mol, numerically equal to avg. atomic mass in amu.
Mass percent (%)
the percent by mass of a component of a mixture or of a given element in a compound
a chemical formula showing the ratio of elements in a compound rather than the total number of atoms
a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
reactants are elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction; Products are the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
The arrow in a chemical equation that points to the product
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance
(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance
one element replaces another element in a compound
a chemical reaction where two elements in different compounds trade places
rapid oxidation of substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light
The difference between the chemical gradient and the electircal gradient.
(of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
(of a substance) not easily dissolved
a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture
similar to or containing or dissolved in water
a conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
the substance that controls the quantity of product that can form in a chemical reaction