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6th grade History Chapter 11

mercenaries

Who were Byzantine soldiers that were hired by the government to fight?

decreased the soldiers pay

What did the emperor do when he ran out of money?

They were weaker because the army was made up of mercenaries.

Why did the Persian emperor think this was a good time to attack the Byzantine empire?

Yes, because the Persians won the war.

Was the Persian emperor correct to attack the Byzantine empire while they were weak?

Avars & Bulgars

What was the two tribes in the Balkans that were strong enough to take the land from the Byzantines?

the Lombards

What tribe took over Italy?

1. He reformed the Army
2. He reconquered the land taken by Persia & the Barbarians
3. He made the roads safe for commerce

How did Heraclius help the Byzantine empire?

Heraclius fired the Mercenary soldiers & trained Byzantine peasants for the army.

How did Heraclius reform the army?

Heraclius gave each soldier enough land to support them & their family

How did Heraclius motivate the peasant soldiers to fight since he had no money to pay them?

They were defending their own land

Why did the citizen-soldiers fight harder than the mercenary soldiers had fought?

Themes

Heraclius conquered so much new land that he had to re-organize the empire by dividing it into providences called ______?

guilds

What are the special groups that united people who had the same trade, such as goldsmiths and notaries called?

Silk was very expensive because it came all the way from China & only important people from the government wore it.

Why was silk such an important item in this empire?

from silkworms

How did the Chinese make silk?

they stole silkworms from China

What did the Byzantine empire do to make their own silk?

Greek

What did Heraclius changed the official language to?

Basilius

What did Heraclius use as the title for their rulers?

Heracluis wanted people to think of them as the Roman empire.

Why did Heracluis change the official language of the Byzantine empire?

Torah

As Muhammad went through the Middle East, he discovered jewish merchants whose belief were based on what book?

the Bible

What did Christian merchants base their belief on?

Gabriel

Who did Muhammad claim he received a special message from, who said Muhammad was a prophet?

Allah

Muhammad was supposed to give the Arab people the message from what god?

Koran

What is Allah's holy book called?

Islam

What religion means "submission to Allah"?

Muslims

What did they call the people who followed Islam?

infidels

What did they call the people that did NOT follow Islam?

They would lose money from the yearly Pilgrimage to Mecca.

The new religion of Islam was different for the people because it only included the worship of one god. If he Arab's accepted Muhammad's new religion, why would the merchants of Mecca would lose money?

Hegira

Non-Muslim Meccans made Muhammad leave his home in 622, and this flight from Mecca became known as ______?

Islamic Calendar

Which calendar was used to mark the year Muhammad left his home in 622?

the Kaaba

Muhammad did not want to leave Mecca because he believed "what" should be the temple of Allah?

It's when Muslims fight for his faith. (holy war)

Describe the term "Jihad":

Caliphs

Who were the men who lead the Muslims after Muhammad's death?

Abu-Bakr

Who was the 1st man that lead the Caliphs?

1. He conquered the Arabian Peninsula
2. converted the people to Islam.

What was Abu-Bakr able to do in only two years?

Khalid ibn al-Walid

Who lead the army into Persia and conquered Persia for Caliph Omar?

Jerusalem

What city was Khalid able to take over?

Dome of the Rock

Which Islamic mosque stands in Jerusalem today?

The action & teachings do not match up.

How do the actions of the Muslim generals compare to the Koran's teaching of how to live without fighting?

20 years

The Byzantine emperors gave more & more land to peasants who joined the army. Nobility were angry with this practice. How long did the "civil war" last in the land?

Leo the Isaurian

What man began his career as an "administrator" & "a general" in Byzantine government?

the emperor

Who did Leo the Isaurian become more powerful than?

Emperor Leo III

Leo the Isaurian captured the true emperor & named himself ________?

Greek fire

What did the Byzantines invent as an explosive weapon that burst into flames when it touched the water?

Muslim armies

During the time of Leo's reign, who camped outside the walls of Constantinople?

Muslim ships

The Byzantines used Greek fire to burn ____ ____ so Leo could bring in supplies for his people.

froze to death & a plague

What else killed the Muslim soldiers camped around Constantinople allowing Leo to take back Asia Minor from the Muslims?

caesaropapism

Leo III believed to have authority over the state & church, which is called _____?

icons

What are sacred pictures and statues of Jesus & the saints?

An earthquake shook the place & Leo believed it was a sign from God to destroy them.

What happened to Constantinople that caused Leo to destroy all the statues & pictures in the church?

iconoclasm

What is hatred of icons called?

Pope Gregory III

Who disagreed with Leo about destroying the statues & pictures in the church? (This disagreement caused a split in the church into Byzantium & Rome.)

Eastern Orthodox Church, patriarch

The Eastern part of the Catholic church is called ____ & its leader is called _____?

Roman Catholic Church, pope

The western part of the Catholic church is called ____ & its leader is called ____?

Michael III

Who "reorganized the University of Constantinople", during the Golden Age of the Byzantine Empire?

Basil I

Who "revised the law" in the Golden Age of the Byzantine Empire?

Cyrillic alphabet

What new alphabet was invented for Slavic Bible?

Cyril & Methodius

What missionaries translated the Bible into Slavic?

never married, devoted life to making empire stronger, army well trained, made nobles collect taxes, kept church from taking land from peasants

Describe Basil II?

He defeated the Bulgars & captured 14,000 soldiers, blinded them in groups of 100, except for a one-eyed man to lead the way home.

Why was Basil II called "the Bulgar Slayer"?

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