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biochemistry

chemistry of organic molecules

organic molecules

molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen

macromolecule

an organic molecule that is large and has a tendency to form chains

carbon

it is the most reactive element in a macromolecule due to its ability to form a total of four bonds

monomer

individual unit in a chain of macromolecular organic compounds

polymer

two or more monomers in a chain

dehydration synthesis

the process of forming polymers by the loss of water

hydrolysis

process of splitting up polymers with the addition of water

60-65%

percentage of carbs in diet

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

elements in carbs

monosaccharide

monomer of a carb

glucose

monosaccharide of a carb that is blood sugar

fructose

monosaccharide of a carb that is fruit sugar

galactose

monosaccharide of a carb that is milk sugar

isomer

anything with the exact same formula, but a different shape

disaccharide

two monomers of a carb

maltose

glucose + glucose

sucrose

glucose + fructose

lactose

glucose + galactose

maltose

malt sugar

sucrose

table sugar

lactose

milk sugar

polysaccharide

three or more monomers of a carb

glycogen

what is formed in the liver from the glucose

starch

polysaccharide that is in plant stored form and is used for energy while being digestable

cellulose "fiber"

plant stored carb that is indigestable but helps regulate digestion

20-25%

percentage of protein in diet

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

elements in protein

amino acid

monomer of protein

functional group

special collection of atoms that give certain properties to a compound

"R" group

variable in the amino acid that can change

20

number of amino acids

dipeptide

2 peptide bonds

peptide bond

bond between amino acids

polypeptide

3 or more peptide bonds

hydrophilic

attracted to water

hydrophobic

unattracted to water

primary structure

first stage of a protein in which the polypeptide has formed

secondary structure

structure when the polypeptides become Beta pleated sheets or alpha helix

tertiary structure

sometimes called "domain"; collapsed sheet

quatemary structure

two domains bonded perfectly together; the completed protein

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