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General Court

Appointed members of the upper house in Massachusetts, the only colony to do so

Dominion of New England

In the 1680s James II, brought New York, New Jersey, and all of New England under one administration

Mercantilism

A loose system of economic organization designed, through favorable balance of trade to bring prosperity to the country

Navigation Acts

Meant to control trade within the British empire so as to benefit Britain and promote it administration of the colonies

"Unfavorable balance of trade"

A country with this balance imported more goods then exported

Role of Smuggling

Allowed colonist tobacco planters to ship their wares directly to Dutch or French ports instead of exclusively to English ports

Sir Robert Walpole

The Prime Minister of England who's most famous policy was of salutary neglect

Great Awakening

A widespread evangelical revival movement of the 1740s and 1750s, it spread religious fervor but weakened the authority of the established churches

George Whitefield

Arrived in Georgia in 1738 as a Oxford-trained Anglican minister, he went on a series of fund-raising tours throughout the colonies, he "dumbed down" his sermons so much that a child could understand them

Benjamin Franklin

Represented Pennsylvania, Georgia, New Jersey, and Massachusetts in the British Parliament

Yale

Lost part of its endowment when its president in 1741 criticized the theology of itinerant minister who imitated Whitefield

Princeton

Founded in 1746 by New Side Presbyterians

Brown

Founded in 1765 by Baptists

Albany Plan

Written by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 for the collective defense of the British colonies, the British government never adopted it because it had the potential for unifying the colonies against British rule

Enlightenment

An intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that celebrated human reason and scientific advances and expressed doubts about the truth claims of sacred texts

King George's War

Lasted from 1740-1748, in America, a New England force captured the French fortress of Louisbourg which guarded the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the fort was returned in the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748

French and Indian War

Lasted from 1754-1763, most of it took place in North America, it was between the English and the French and their Indian allies

General Edward Braddock

In 1755 marched a force of 1,400 Redcoats and a smattering of colonials, they were defeated by a contingent of French and Indians, he died in the battle and only 500 soldiers remained

Seven Year's War

Lasted from 1756-1763, between France and her allies and England and her allies

Peace of Paris 1763

Ended the Seven Year's War, France had to abandon all claim to North America; Great Britain received Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley, Spain got back the Philippine Islands and Cuba, but had to cede East and West Florida to England

Salutary Neglect

The policy of Sir Robert Walpole which involved looking the other way when Americans violated the Navigation Acts

Jonathan Edwards

Pastor of the church in Northampton, Massachusetts , warned his followers about how horrible their souls were, in 1749 he was dismissed by his parishioners, before he could take the office of president at Princeton he died of smallpox

Proclamation of 1763

6,000 British soldiers were placed on the frontier so that not settlers could cross the Appalachian divide, only licensed traders were allowed to do business with the Indians across the divide, and the purchase of Indian land was forbidden

Sugar Act

Passed in April of 1764, which placed tariffs on sugar, coffee, wine, and other things imported into America in substantial qualities

George Grenville

Became England's Prime Minister in 1763, he was determined to end smuggling, corruption, and ineffiency

"Virtual" representation

An idea held by some colonists that their representation in the Parliament was nonexistent even though in actuality the colonies were represented because every member in Parliament stood for the interests of the British Empire

Stamp Act

Passed in 1765, placed stiff tariffs on all kinds of printed matter, no one could sell newspapers or pamphlets, or convey licenses, diplomas, or legal papers without buying a special stamp and putting it on the printed matter

Patrick Henry

Said that the Crown had no right to tax the colonies only the colonies could tax themselves

Stamp Act Congress

Delegates of most of the colonial assemblies in America meet in New York City to protest the Stamp Act

Declaratory Act

Passed by British Parliament in 1766, which said the colonies were subordinate to England and Parliament could pass any law, it wished on the colonies

Townshend Duties

Passed in 1767, a tax on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea imported into the colonies, written by Charles Townshend, the chancellor of the exchequer, this lead to the colonists importing ½ of what they did before these duties were enacted

John Dickinson

A lawyer from Philadelphia who wanted to find a solution to the trouble in the colonies but he believed that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies

Boston Massacre

On March 5, 1770 a confrontation between British troops and Bostonians, the troops killed 5 Bostonians, this incident inflamed sentiment against the British

Gaspee

A British patrol boat that was burned by a gang of locals, commanded by Lieutenant Dudingston who angered the locals with his officiousness and zeal, no one was arrested for the burning of the Gaspee because none of the locals would tell who did it

Samuel Adams

Believed that Parliament had no right at all to pass legislature upon the colonies

Boston Tea Party

On November 27th 1773 a band of colonists dressed as Indians dumped tea chests form the Darthmouth and two other ships into the sea, they were cheered on by many at the wharf side

Coercive Acts

Passed by Parliament in 1774 meant to punish Boston and Massachusetts for the destruction of the tea during the Boston Tea Party

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