AP Psycho Final/AP Exam Review - Test 3

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Questions on motivation and emotion

epinephrine

A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is:

two-factor theory

When students perceive the arousal that accompanies test-taking as energizing rather than debilitating, they experience much less anxiety. This is best understood in terms of the:

a hierarchy of motives

Professor Sanford explains that the need for physical safety must be met before city dwellers will be motivated to form close friendships with fellow citizens. Professor Sanford is providing an example:

destruction of its ventromedial hypothalamus

What event would most likely cause an animal to overeat and become obese?

catharsis hypothesis

A psychotherapist suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels toward her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the:

The body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as:

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

After receiving an unexpected "A' on his psychology test, Jordan was easily persuaded to baby-sit his little sister while his parents went out for dinner. This best illustrates the:

some emotional reactions may occur without conscious thinking

Evidence that visual input is routed from the thalamus directly to the amygdala has been used to support the claim that:

cognitive activity

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ______ than do other theories of emotion.

solving a crossword puzzle

Relatively high levels of physiological arousal would most likely interfere with effectively:

the adaptation-level principle

What best explains why both million-dollar lottery winners and paraplegics report similar levels of happiness?

William James

Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry...afraid because we tremble"?

drive reduction (Hall)

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and:

James-Lange Theory

The fact that facial expressions of emotion tend to intensify the experience of emotion serves to support the:

belongingness

Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ______ needs.

sometimes emotion precedes cognition

Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposes has convinced Robert Zajonc that:

bulimia nervosa

Sixteen-year-old Jill loves ice cream and other rich foods, but she has become increasingly anxious about gaining too much weight. Jill frequently overeats and then intentionally vomits in an attempt to control her weight. Jill most clearly suffers from:

perspiration levels

Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his:

testosterone

Women's sexual receptivity differs from that of nonhuman female mammals in being more responsive to ______ levels than to estrogen levels.

slowing of digestion

When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by:

genetic influence plays a role in sexual orientation

Research on the causes of homosexuality suggest that:

a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal

A need refers to:

c) a low blood glucose level (it is an example of a need)

Which of the following is most clearly NOT an example of an incentive?
a) social disapproval
b) a pornographic film
c) a low blood glucose level
d) the smell of rotten

need; drive

Lack of body fluids is to thirst as _____ is to ______.

evolutionary perspective

It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the:

two-factor theory

A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, ecnlosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of the:

sexual orientation

Isaac, a 25-year-old law student, is heterosexual; his brother Chaim, a 21-year-old college senior is homosexual. The brothers obviously differ in their:

a drive

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:

incentives

The influence of a personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of ______ on motivation.

anorexia nervosa

Chiara, a 14-year-old, is of average height but weighs only 80 pounds. She has lost 30 pounds over the last six months by eating very little and running five miles a day. She is determined not to become overweight and ignores her parents' suggestion that she should eat well-balanced meals. Chiara suffers from:

It will be good if his physiological arousal during the performance is moderate

Thaddeus will play a violin solo at this school tomorrow. What will be true of his musical performance?

an instinct

It is characteristic of robins to build nests. This is an example of:

two-factor theory

After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin's experience can best be explained by the:

observational learning

In experiments with adult monkeys who were fearful of snakes and their offspring who were not, Susan Mineka discovered that the younger monkeys developed a fear of snakes through the process of:

boredom

The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of:

anger

People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of:

Cannon-Bard Theory

According to the ______, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.

prolonged eye-gazing

Couples who are passionately in love most frequently communicate intimacy by means of:

facial expressions

As a member of the diplomatic corps, Alex was given special training in the customs, language, and religions of the Third World country where he would be living. However, Alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his hosts' expressions of emotion as revealed by their:

drive

An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a:

amygdala

Observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the ______ than do those watching angry faces.

blind children who have never observed others demonstrate normal facial expressions of emotions

Research on nonverbal communication indicates that:

Cannon-Bard Theory

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the:

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