# NBDH Community 3

### 113 terms by mandajz

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survey

analysis

program planning

### Treatment

program operation

finance

### Evaluation

evaluation/appraisal

### WHO

international, world health organization

### DHHS

dept of health and human services, Healthy people 2020, federal

### CDC

centers for disease control and prevention, federal

### HRSA

health resources and services administration, federal

### NIDCR

national institute of dental and craniofacial research, federal

### AHRQ

agency for healthcare research and quality, federal

### Random sampling

each element in the population has an equal chance of appearing; reduces chance of bias

### Stratified sampling

selecting an element according to certain subgroups to diminish the change of sample flucuation; can be random stratified- accomplished by randomly selecting a proportionate number of subjects from each subgroup for the sample

### Systematic sampling

select every "nth" to participate

### Judgement sampling

someone who knows the population selects the sample; familiarity with the population, bias introduced

### Convenience sampling

group is chosen because it happens to be convenient; may represent the population; ease for evaluator

### Variable

what is being measured or observed

### Dependent variable

the outcome of interest; should change in response to intervention

### Independent variable

the intervention; what is being manipulated

### Statistics

a science that describes data for the purpose of making interpretations

### Descriptive statistics

concerned with the presentation, organization, and summarization of the data

### Inferential statistics

allows one to generalize from the sample to a larger group of subjects

### Frequency distribution

tabulating how often each score occurs

### Ungrouped

data is presented in ascending or descending order along with the frequency of each score occuring in the data set

### Cumulative

frequency of occurance of scores up to and including any given value in the data set

### Grouped

grouping variables into consecutive intervals

### Skew

symmetry of the curve

### Positive skew

more scores are in the lower range

### Negative skew

more scores are in the higher range

### Normal curve

bell, gaussian, scores are equally distributed around the mean; meand, median, and mode all have the same value

### Measures of central tendency

different ways to define the center or middle of a distribution

### Mean

average number of scores; add all scores and divide by number of scores; most common measure of central tendency

### Median

divides the distribution into 2 equal parts; 50% of scores lie above center, 50% of scores lie below center, not affected by extreme scores

### Mode

score that occurs with greatest frequency; corresponds to the peak of the curve when plotted out

### Measures of dispersion

describes how wide the scores are around a central point

### Range

difference between the high and low score; affected by extremely high or low scores

### Standard deviation

the square root of the sample variance; most commonly uesd method of dispersion, the larger the number representing the SD, the wider the distribution curve

### Validity

the degree to which a data collection instrument measures the variable it is designed to measure; does the test really measure what it claims to be measuring?

### Reliability

the extent to which the method of measurement performs consistently

### Intraexaminer

consistent performance by the same investigator when using a data collection instrument

### Interexaminer

consistent performance by different investigators when using the same data collection instrument

### Calibration

the process of establishing a relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure; helps increase interexaminer reliability

### Sensitivity

the ability of a test to correctly identify the presence of a disease

### Specificity

the ability of a test to correctly identify the absence of a disease

### Correlation co-efficient

determines the strength of relationship between 2 variables; shows a possible cause and effect; between -1 & +1; the closer to either of those numbers the stronger the correlation

### Positive correlation

direct association betwen 2 variables; as value of x increases, the value of y increases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y decreases

### Negative correlation

the score on one scale predicts an opposite score on the other scale; as the value of x increases, the value of y decreases; as the value of x decreases, the value of y increases

### T-test

a statistical hypothesis test used when comparing the statistical difference between 2 mean scores

### ANOVA

analysis of variance, used when comparing the statistical difference between 3 or more mean scores

### P-value

probability value, used when testing hypothesis; standard of acceptability is p less than or equal to 0.05, 1 out of 20 occured by chance, nothing to do with the testing situation

### Primary preventive services

involves techniques and agents to forestall onset and reverse progress of disease or arrest the disease profess before treatment becomes necessary. Ex: mechanical and chemical plaque removal, fluoride, sugar discipline

### Secondary preventive services

involves routine treatment methods to terminate a disease and restore tissues to as normal as possible; intervene or prevent the progression and recurrence of disease. Ex: periodontal debridement, restorations

### Tertiary preventive services

involves measures necessary to replace lost tissue and rehabilitate patients. Ex: prosthestics, implants

### Epidemic

an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular population at a particular place and time.

### Endemic

a disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course

### Pandemic

an outbreak of disease over a wide geographical areas such as a continent

### Rate

the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time

### Natality

the number of live births

### Morbidity

the rate of an illness in a population

### Mortality

the number of deaths in a population

### Incidence

the number of new cases in a population at risk during a particular period of time; conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease

### Prevalence

the number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time; tells how widespread the disease is, prevalence=past

### Attack

an incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak

### Descriptive studies

describes an epidemic with respect to person, place, and time

### Analytical studies

aimed at testing hypotheses

### Retrospective studies (case control)

seek to compare thoes diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have the disease for proper exposure to specific risk factors

### Prospective studies

a cohort is classified by exposure to one or more specific risk factors and observed into the future to determine the rate at which disease develops

### Longitudinal study

a group is observed over a long period of time

### Experimental studies

a study carried out under controlled situations, control group, experimental group, may be blind or double blind

### Control group

the group that has experimental treatment (intervention) withheld; receives a placebo

### Treatment groups

the group that receives the experimental treatment

### Blindness

the practice in which the researcher remains uninformed and unaware of the identifiers of treatment and control group members through the period of experiment to prevent bias

### Double blind

neither the reseacher nor the subjects know who is receiving the treatment

### Characteristics of an Ideal Index

simple, valid, reliable, clear, sensitive, quantifiable, objective, accepted

### Reversible index

measures conditionns that can be reversed or resolved

### Irreversible index

measures cumulative conditions that cannot be reversed

### Simple index

measures the presence or absence of a condition

### Cumulative index

measures all the evidence of a condition, past and present

### DMFT/DMFS

decayed, missing, filled teeth/surfaces, irreversible, past and present caries experience w/ permanent dentition

### deft

decayed, need for extraction, filled teeth, irreversible, observable caries experience in primary teeth

### dft/dfs

decayed, filled teeth/surfaces, irreversible, primary teeth

### RCI

root caries index, irreversible, must have recession

### GI

gingival index, reversible, based on severity of inflammation and location, used to determine prevalence and severity of gingivitis in cohort groups

### SBI

sulcular bleeding index, reversible, to detect early signs of gingivitis

### PDI

periodontal disease index, ramjford, irreverible, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease, measures both reversible (gingitivits) and irreversible (periodontitis)

### PI

periodontal index, irreversible, does not measure attachment loss

### PSR

periodontal screening and recording, assesses state of periodontal health rapid and effective, premilinary screening to determine need for full mouth periodontal assessment, uses special probe

### CPITN

community periodontal indec of treatment needs, established by WHO to determine periodontal tx needs rather than periodontal status, requires special probe

### OHI-S

simplified oral hygiene index, reversible, measures oral hygiene status, involves both debris and calculus index

### PLI

plaque index, reversible, measures difference in thickness of soft deposits at gingival margin, used in conjunction with GI

### PHP

patient hygiene performance, reversible, assess individual's performance in removing debris after toothbrushing instructions

### VMI

volpe-manhold index, reversible, used to test agents for plaque control and calculus inhibition, scores supragingival calculus following prophylaxis

### Needs assessment

process by which the program planner identifies and measures gaps between what is and what ought to be, analyze and understand the target population, to collect baseline data for program evaluation

### How to conduct a needs assessment?

direct observation, interview, questionnaire, survey, epidemilogical surveys, records, documents, charts

type of care available

type of care desired

actual receipt of dental tx by public

interferences with care to be provided or received

### Type I examination

complete examination, includes mouth mirror and explorer, lighting, radiographs, study models, tests as needed

### Type II examination

limited examination, includes mouth mirror and explorer, limited radiographs

### Type III examination

inspection- mouth mirror and lighting

### Type IV examination

screening- tongue depressor, lighting

### Goals

broad-based statement of what changes will occur as a result of the program

### Objective

specific statement that describes, in a measurable manner, the desired result of the program, based on needs of target population; can be considered steps to achieve the program goals

### Formal delivery of teaching

lecture, demonstration, discussion

### Informal delivery

brochures, pamphlets, video

### Unawareness

the patient has incomplete or inaccurate information

### Awareness

correct information is obtained but it still lacks personal meaning

### Self-interest

patient personalizes information

### Involvement

old ideas are discarded for new ones in an effort to change; motivate to act

### Action

the patient tests new concepts; acts based on a perceived need

### Habit

the patient begins to experience gratification and self-satisfaction; the behavior is modified

Example: