Geology Exam 4

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With respect to the dangers of mass wasting which of the following conditions would be the best in terms of locating a house or structure?

gentle slope, light and steady rain and heavy vegetation

In order for caves and cave deposits to form which of the following conditions must be met?

dissolution must take place below groundwater table followed by deposition when the cave is above the groundwater table

Very slowly moving mass wastage is known as

solifluction

The deposits of stream sediments that are associated with periodic flooding are known as?

alluvium

Of Earth's water, approximately what percent is not ocean or glacial?

0.8

What is the origin of geothermal water in places such as Iceland?

Its recycled precipitation

Typical rates of flow for groundwater are

cm/day

The geologic time scale is constructed from

the principles of radioactive decay and a sequence of geologic and biologic events

A drainage basin is

a region bounded by divides, containing all the tribuataries of a main stream and carrying all the runoff from the entire region

What is karst?

a type of landscape

Construction of a dam in the path of a river will have what effect on base level?

temporarily raise it

Which of the following mass wasting processes is called creep?

solifluction

Which of the following states or places is most prone to sinkhole formation?

Florida

An imaginary line below which rivers cannot erode is called?

base level

Why is little groundwater found at depths greater than 750 meters?

there are few open pores below that depth

Which of the following situations will lead to a decrease in erosion by a stream?

an increase in channel width

Debris flows differ from mudflows in that

debris flows contain material of larger grain size

Which of the following geologic ERA or EON is the oldest?

Precambrian

The recycling of water on Earth is described in?

the hydrologic cycle

Which of the following statements about the length of the Precambrian EON is correct?

It covers the first 4 billion years in Earth's history

Which of the following is an example of mass wasting?

creep

Which of the following has not been used for dating in geology?

elevation

Approximately what portion of Earth's water occurs in streams, lakes and groundwater?

1 %

What kind of sedimentary deposit forms where a stream overflows in the lowlands?

a flood plain

Stalagtites from as a result of

precipitation of calcium carbonate from water in cave air

When groundwater reaches the water table, most of it flows

along downward curving paths

Which of the following questions about the water table is wrong?

It is always at the same depth in a given place

The type of mass wasting responsible for the greatest number of amount of property damage is

creep

Which of the following is the most porous?

gravel

Radiocarbon dating of dead organisms is possible because

life forms stop accumulating carbon 14 when they die

Which of the following statements concerning radiometric dating is wrong?

Radioactive isotopes decay faster on Earth's surface than they do at Earth's core

The boundary between the zone of aeration (or zone of undersaturation) and the zone of saturation is known as the?

water table

Scientists have concluded that the Earth is 4.5 billion years old. Which dating method was used to obtain this age?

uranium-lead dating (half-life: 4.5 billion years)

Avalanches are known to obtain very high speeds due to the presence of trapped air. What role does this air play?

It decreases friction between grains

Porosity is

the percentage of the rock of sediment that is open space

The removal of water from the zone of saturation is known as

discharge

Groundwater returns to the rest of the hydrologic cycle mainly through

stream, lakes and the ocean

Most block glides occur in the areas where

the strata and the slope dip in the same direction

A sample currently contains 20 parent atoms and 60 daughter atoms. Given that the half-life is 2,000 years how old is the sample?

4,000

Which of the following would raise sea level?

global warming

Which of the following drainage patterns results from a river on a flat region consisting of hard bedrock with rectangular joints and cracks?

rectangular

In meandering streams, water velocity tends to be the greatest

along the outer bank of a meander loop

We know little about Earth's history past the

Paleozoic

Which of the following materials is most likely to be transported as suspended load?

clay or silt

What are the dimensions of stream discharge?

...

Suspended load includes all material

temporarily or permanently suspended in the flow

What type of drainage network would you expect to find on a volcano?

radial drainage

Which of the following statements about geysers is correct?

...

About half of the existing groundwater is found at depths

less than .75 km

Layers that transmit groundwater are called

aquifers

In arid regions the groundwater table is

...

In which of the following situations of horizontal layering would you have a confined aquifer?

...

For a given river, which of the following floods would least likely to occur every year?

a 100-year flood

States in which extensive karst topography exits include

Texas, New Mexico, California, and Arizona

The fundamental cause (trigger) of mass wasting is

the gravity overcoming the slope's resistance

In the map of a stream above, the arrow is pointing to an

oxbow lake

Which of the following terms described a curved, coarse-grained deposit that forms on the inside curve of a stream?

point bar

Which of the following would be the worst in terms of mass wasting - worst for locating a structure such as a house?

steep slope, thick debris cover, and sparse vegetation

Mass movements would least likely occur in which of the following settings?

...

Stalagmites

grow up from the floor of a cave

What powers the hydrologic cycle?

solar energy

What is an unconformity?

a gap in the geologic record

An undeformed sedimentary layer is ___ than the layer above and ___ than the layer below.

older, younger

Groundwater discharges naturally

wherever the groundwater table intersects the ground surface

The lowering of the water table near the well is called

cone of depression

The illustration above depicts a cross section through a pile of quartz sand. The angle depicted in the diagram is called the

...

Terraces form due to changes in

elevation

What kind of sedimentary deposit forms where a stream enters a standing body of water?

a delta

What is the regional aquifer called?

the Ogallala

The topographic rise between two streams is called a

drainage divide

Radiometric dating is least useful for dating _____ rocks.

sedimentary

In what type of rock do most limestone caves form?

limestone

The largest freshwater reservoir in the hydrologic cycle is

glaciers

The property by which a paper clip can float the surface of a liquid is called

surface tension

Telephone poles that lean slightly downhill are a likely result of which of the following processes?

creep

A rock currently contains 30 parent atoms and 90 daughter atoms. Given that the half life is 1,000 years (and the sample contained no daughters initially) estimate the age of the rock

2000

The angle of repose does not depend on which of the following?

particle composition

Where do deltas form?

at river mouths

The Cambrian was preceded by the

Pre-cambrian

Repeated flooding by a river creates a ____ along the banks of the river.

levee

Which of the following types of mass movements could a person not outrun?

debris avalanche

Radiometric dating is possible if a rock contains a measurable amount of

both daughter and parent atoms

Which of the following would be the most fertile area for crops?

floodplain

Einstein was one of many great minds to ponder why streams meander. He concluded a thought experiment whereby he used the concept of helical flow to explain the origin meanders. In class we refer this experiment as?

the teacup experiment

A radioactive has decayed to the point that 1/8 of the original content is left. How many half-lives have passed?

3

Which kind of drainage pattern develops around a steepsided cone-shaped mountain?

radial

How will a stream respond if its velocity increases?

it will erode more

The half life of a radioactive isotope is

the time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms to decay

What type of drainage pattern is depicted in the map above?

dendritic

The greatest casualties in a single flood occurred in

China

What kind of rock type was initially used to construct the geologic time scale?

fossil bearing sedimentary rock

Carbon-14 has a half life of approximately ______ years and is there for suitable to dating objects younger than approximately ______ years?

5 thousand and 50 thousand

Which country had the deadliest earthquake in recorded history?

China

Water vapor returns to the atmosphere from land by

evaporation

Most major landslides

have natural causes

Stripping soil of vegetation by burning or deforestation will ______ the likelihood of mass movements

increase

Avalanches are known to obtain unexpectedly high speeds due to the presence of?

reduction of friction due to trapped air

Energy waves that are released during an earthquake are called

seismic waves

Which of the following ERA or EON is the youngest (most recent)

tertiary

Which of the following rivers has the greatest discharge?

the Amazon River in South America

If a dam is built, sediment will _______ on the upstream side of the dam and sediment will _______ on the downstream side of the dam.

accumulate, erode

A radioactive isotope decays down by 2 half lives. How many daughter atoms will have formed assuming that you had none to start with and started with 1000 parents?

750

Which of the following forces is the dominant cause of mass movement?

gravity

Sample contains 70 parent atoms and 30 daughter atoms. Assuming that sample contained no daughter atoms initially how many parents did it contain originally?

100

For a given river, which of the following floods would be most likely to occur every year?

a 5-year flood

Mass wasting is classified according to

type of material, rate and type of movement

Sedimentary rocks cannot typically be dated by radiometric methods. This is so because?

newly formed or true sedimentary minerals are difficult to date

As a river flows towards the ocean it narrows but stays the same depth. Which of the following is true about the behavior of the stream as the channel narrows? Assume constant gradient.

velocity increases

What is the role of water in mass wasting?

it adds weight and lowers friction

The ultimate base level for a stream is

sea level

Which of the following dating methods is not based on annual layering

lichenometry

The volume of water flowing past a given point given time is called the

discharge

Point B is called the earthquake

epicenter

Large, cone shaped deposits of a sediment at a mountain front are called

alluvial fans

Which of the following slopes is least stable?

a slope where the sedimentary layers dip parallel to the slope

Braided streams develop where/when

bed load is very abundant

Curves and bends in a stream channel are called

meanders

Fission tracks is a dating method that is based on

tracks or scars left in minerals by the breakdown of radioactive elements

Which of the following best explains why there are no large deltas on the east coast of North America?

because the waves and tides in the atlantic ocean are too strong

On November 8 this year a large asteroid passed within 2,000 miles of Earth. The size of the asteroid was that of

an aircraft carrier

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