products have less energy than reactants. food is oxidized in mitochondria of cells and the releases energy stored in chem bonds.
products have more energy than the reactants. plants use carbon dioxide and water to form sugars
organic catalysts, speed up the rate of reaction without altering the reaction itself. lower the activation energy of a reaction, enabling the reaction to occur much faster than it would in their absence. form temporary enzyme-substrate complexes. remain unaffected by the reaction
each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction
enzyme has to change its shape slightly to accommodate the shape of the substrates
organic factors that help catalyze chemical reactions. vitamins are examples. function is to accept and pass electrons along to another substrate
inorganic elements that help catalyze reactions. usually metal ions, such as Fe+
region of the enzyme other than the active site to which a substance can bind
substances that either inhibit or activate enzymes. allosteric inhibitor/allosteric activator.
substance has a shape that fits the active site of an enzyme and can compete with the substrate and effectively inactivate the enzyme
inhibitor binds with the enzyme at a site other than the active site and inactivates the enzyme by altering its shape
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created nor destroyed. sum of the energy in the universe is constant
second law of thermodynamics
energy transfer leads to less organization. universe tends towards disorder (ENTROPY)
transformation of SOLAR ENERGY into CHEMICAL energy. plants take carbon dioxide, water and energy and use them to produce glucose.
6CO2+6H2O+SUNLIGHT => C6H12O6+6O2
C6H12O6+6O2 => 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
stages of aerobic respiration
glycolysis, formation of acetyl CoA, the krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
first stage of cellular respiration. 6 carbon glucose is broken down into two three carbon molecules called pyruvic acid. results in the net production of TWO ATP.
occurs in the cytoplasm, net of TWO ATPs produced, TWO pyruvic acids formed, TWO NADH produced
sites of cellular respiration
occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria.