Chapter 7: The Skeletal System Appendicular Division

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The appendicular skeleton is involved in changing your position in the external environment

Standing

Walking

Sitting

Dressing

Driving A Car

The Pectoral Girdle

Includes the S-shaped clavicle (collarbone) and the flattened scapula (shoulder blade)

The clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum and is the only direct connection between the axial skeleton and the pectoral girdle

The scapula is attached to the clavicle anteriorly but has no connection to the actual axial skeleton; instead skeletal muscles and ligaments support it

The upper limb consists of the

Brachium
(humerus)

Antebrachium
(ulna and radius)

Wrist
(carpals)

Hand
(metacarpals and phalanges)

The Wrist and Hand

The carpal bones are the 8 bones of the wrist

The metacarpal bones (5) articulate with the distal carpal bones and make up the palm of the hand

The 14 phalanges of the hand make up the finger bones

The Pelvic Girdle

Supports and protects the lower viscera and developing fetus in females

The pelvic girdle consists of two ossa coxae bones

The bones of the pelvic girdle and lower limb are much more massive than their homologues of the upper limb

The male and female pelvis contains numerous differences

Generally the male pelvis is heavier with more prominent markings due to the larger muscles attached to it

Differences are noted as how the female compares to the male

Enlarged outlet, due to wider ischial spines

Less curvature of the sacrum and coccyx

Wider, more circular pelvic inlet

Broader, lower pelvis

Widely fanning ilia

Pubic angle greater than 100 degrees

The Lower Limb

Responsible for transferring the body weight to the ground

The Lower Limb consists of the following structures

The Femur
(thigh)

The Patella
(kneecap)

The Tibia
(leg)

The Fibula
(leg)

Tarsal Bones and the Ankle

Metatarsal Bones and Phalanges of the Foot

The Ankle and Foot

There are 7 tarsal bones that make up the ankle

The metatarsal bones (5) articulate with the distal tarsal bones and make up the arches of the foot

The 14 phalanges of the foot make up the toe bones

Individual Variation in the Skeletal System

Your skeleton can reveal information about you, such as your race, medical history, gender, body size, muscle mass, and age

As you age, a number of changes and events take place in the skeletal system

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