Rightly Guided Caliphs
Four rightful successors of Muhammad. Orthodox successors of Muhammad. Supposed to be a democratic process.
Third Successor. Didn't have good control of outer regions. There were delegates for the regions. He had them report and they were to take letters back to their regions. Letters ordered the delegates' deaths. They returned mad. Mobbed and murdered Uthman.
Declared himself fourth successor. Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Didn't seem to be too concerned about Uthman's murder, btw. Muawiya and Aisha (Muhammad's widow) contested but were fighting amongst themselves. They were going to battle but didn't. Battle of camel. Aisha gave up. Ongoing feud with Muawiya.
Governor of Syria. Contested Ali's caliphship. Declared himself caliph after he survived assination attempt and Ali didn't. He ruled from Syria. After he passed away, his son, Yazid, was caliph.
Didn't like the fighting between Ali and Muawiya. So, they hired assins for both. Ali was killed. Muawiya survived. Muawiya declared himself caliph.
Hussein and Hassan
Sons of Ali. They contested Yazid's caliphship. Hussein died in battle with Yazid in 680 CE in Battle of Karbala. Hassan renounced his position of opposition and was poisoned and died anyway.
Battle of Karbala
Yazid (Muawiya's son) and Hussein (Ali's son) battled in 680 CE. Hussein died.
Umyyad Clan 661-750 CE
Decedents of Muawiya that were successor caliphs. 661-750 CE. Called Damascus caliphate.
MINOR faction. They say that Ali's lineage was true caliph lineage. They pray 3/day. Pray to Muhammad AND ALI. They say there were 12 successors to Ali (Imams).
Shiites believed 12 successors to Ali were the rightful caliphs. They were infoulable. Had special powers due to genetic links to Muhammad's daughter, Fatima, Ali's wife.
Shiite belief. Last of Ali's decedents. Like mesiah. Disappeared. Supposedly to return someday. Believed to be in an alternate reality.
Abassids 750-1258 CE
Caliph dynasty. Replaced Umyyad Clan (Muawiya's decedents) They were decedents of Abbas, Muhammad's uncle. 750 - 1258 CE. Golden Age for Islam. Islam spread to North Africa, Tibet, China, Russia, Spain, etc.
1258 Mongols took Baghdad and killed every living person. It took 40 days. Dynasty fell. That left Cyro, Egypt center of Muslim world.