Muslim Civilization

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Rightly Guided Caliphs

Four rightful successors of Muhammad. Orthodox successors of Muhammad. Supposed to be a democratic process.

Abu Bakr

Close Friend to Muhammad. First successor.

Umar

Second successor. Assinated by Persia.

Uthman

Third Successor. Didn't have good control of outer regions. There were delegates for the regions. He had them report and they were to take letters back to their regions. Letters ordered the delegates' deaths. They returned mad. Mobbed and murdered Uthman.

Ali

Declared himself fourth successor. Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Didn't seem to be too concerned about Uthman's murder, btw. Muawiya and Aisha (Muhammad's widow) contested but were fighting amongst themselves. They were going to battle but didn't. Battle of camel. Aisha gave up. Ongoing feud with Muawiya.

Muawiya

Governor of Syria. Contested Ali's caliphship. Declared himself caliph after he survived assination attempt and Ali didn't. He ruled from Syria. After he passed away, his son, Yazid, was caliph.

Kharajites

Didn't like the fighting between Ali and Muawiya. So, they hired assins for both. Ali was killed. Muawiya survived. Muawiya declared himself caliph.

Yazid

Muawiya's son. Was caliph after Muawiya passed away.

Hussein and Hassan

Sons of Ali. They contested Yazid's caliphship. Hussein died in battle with Yazid in 680 CE in Battle of Karbala. Hassan renounced his position of opposition and was poisoned and died anyway.

Battle of Karbala

Yazid (Muawiya's son) and Hussein (Ali's son) battled in 680 CE. Hussein died.

Umyyad Clan 661-750 CE

Decedents of Muawiya that were successor caliphs. 661-750 CE. Called Damascus caliphate.

Shiites

MINOR faction. They say that Ali's lineage was true caliph lineage. They pray 3/day. Pray to Muhammad AND ALI. They say there were 12 successors to Ali (Imams).

Imams

Shiites believed 12 successors to Ali were the rightful caliphs. They were infoulable. Had special powers due to genetic links to Muhammad's daughter, Fatima, Ali's wife.

Muhammad al-Mahdi

Shiite belief. Last of Ali's decedents. Like mesiah. Disappeared. Supposedly to return someday. Believed to be in an alternate reality.

Sunna

MAJOR Muslim group. Not Shiites. They are traditional. Modeled lives after prophet.

Abassids 750-1258 CE

Caliph dynasty. Replaced Umyyad Clan (Muawiya's decedents) They were decedents of Abbas, Muhammad's uncle. 750 - 1258 CE. Golden Age for Islam. Islam spread to North Africa, Tibet, China, Russia, Spain, etc.

1258-1453 CE

1258 Mongols took Baghdad and killed every living person. It took 40 days. Dynasty fell. That left Cyro, Egypt center of Muslim world.

1453 to 1921 CE

Muslim turks became major power. They took Bizzintines from Christians. Set up Automan Empire. Automan empire fell apart.

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